Unformatted text preview: Adolescent Development Psychology 338
Lectures 4 & 5: Cognitive Development Thinking about possibilities Cognitive Transitions Thinking about abstract concepts Metacognition Thinking in multiple dimensions Relativism Thinking about Possibilities The central feature of this transition is a movement from inductive reasoning to deductive reasoning Inductive: Reasoning based on the Inductive and Deductive Reasoning accumulated information. This type of reasoning is dependent on the specific information that is available Deductive: Logical connections are made between different items of information. INDUCTIVE REASONING
Q: Does Professor Schwartz have a graduate degree? All of the professors I've had at USC have graduate degrees. So, professor Schwartz has a graduate degree. DEDUCTIVE REASONING Schwartz is a professor at USC. USC requires that all professors have graduate degrees. Professor Schwartz must have a graduate degree. Deductive Reasoning (an alternative example courtesy of Woody Allen) Plato was a man. Plato was gay. All men are gay. Abstract and Concrete Thought Concrete thought: Focus on the observable properties of objects or situations. Abstract thought: Recognition of higherorder relations between objects that may not be directly observable. The capacity to reason based on inferred properties. ONE SWALLOW DOES NOT A SUMMER MAKE. Using concrete thinking what would this statement suggest? How would the meaning change if you used abstract thinking? A child might be able to solve a difficult MetaCognition: Thinking about Thinking
problem but will not understand HOW he/she solved the problem. A adolescent is capable of introspection, and can understand his/her own thought processes. As a result, adolescents can improve their reasoning abilities. Multidimensional thinking Children tend to conceptualize situations from one specific perspective, whereas adolescents can simultaneously consider multiple aspects Multidimensional thinking allows for a better understanding of probabilities, and more accurate predictions for the future. Relativism Children tend to think in black andwhite, allornothing terms. Adolescents can appreciate a continuum of possibilities. Thinking becomes less absolute and there is recognition for variability. Jean Piaget Cognitive development is a stagelike process. Development occurs as a consequence of interactions between a child's maturing biological capabilities and experience. Sensorimotor Stage (0 to 2 years old) In this stage, infant's learning and development focus on simple physical interactions with the world. Sensorimotor Stage (0 to 2 years old) Infants form mental structures that organize information. These structures are known as SCHEMAS. Schemas are altered through sensorimotor interactions with the environment. How do schemas change? ASSIMILATION: Incorporation of new experiences into an existing schema. For example: grasping schema includes information about how to hold toy hammer as well as teddy bear. How do schemas change? ACCOMMODATION: Schema is altered to fit new information. For example: Holding schema is altered to incorporate objects that need to be lifted with two hands. Preoperational Stage (Age 2 to Age 7) Main accomplishment of this stage is ability to represent information with symbols, and to reason symbolically. Preoperational Stage (Age 2 to Age 7) However, cognition is still fairly primitive and characterized by errors: Egocentrism Centration Appearance as reality Concrete Operational Stage (age 8 to Age 11) Emergence of "operations." Logical reasoning that is guided by structured rules. But, reasoning is very concrete, based on the here and now and observable properties of objects and situations. Concrete Operational Stage (age 8 to Age 11) Reasoning tends to be inductive. Reasoning is not characterized by abstract thought, but youngster becomes less egocentric and less bound by his/her own perspective. Formal Operational Stage (Age 11 to Adulthood) Operations incorporate abstract thought. So, youngster can reason about aspects of a situation that are not easily observable. Furthermore, reasoning begins to incorporate hypothesis testing (i.e., "what if?") thinking. Formal Operational Stage (Age 11 to Adulthood) Deductive reasoning develops. Capacity for formal operations continues to develop across adolescence and into adulthood. Propositional Logic Logical operation in which decisions are made according to rulebased relations between concepts. Reasoning can be applied to hypothetical events, and abstract qualities, as well as easily observed events. Information Processing Perspectives Computer as a metaphor for human thought. Focus on the ways that adolescents receive, process, and understand information. Information Processing Perspectives Some areas of investigation: Attention Memory Processing Speed Metacognition The Computer Metaphor and Adolescent Cognitive Development
COMPUTER Input/Output Attention Hard drive Longterm memory RAM Shortterm memory CPU Processing Speed Software Mental Strategies Metacognition Automatic Processing HUMAN DOMAIN Attention Selective attention: Ability to regulate flow of attention in a situation where more than one stimulus is present. Divided attention: Ability to focus on more than one stimulus, shifting attention rapidly Memory Development Longterm memory: Storage for extended periods of time. Can hold large amounts of information. Shortterm memory: More limited storage but with faster access. Both short and longterm memory are enhanced over the course of adolescence. Other Important Areas of Development Processing Speed Efficiency of strategies Metacognition Automatic Processing Lev Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development Cognitive development is a process that is imbedded in the social environment. Cognitive strategies are learned through social interaction. Lev Vtgotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development Children develop intellectually by interacting with adults who are more cognitively skilled. Cognition develops as part of an "apprenticeship" between children and adults. The Zone of Proximal Development Without assistance, children can cognitively perform at a particular level. With assistance from an adult, they can generally perform at a higher level. The Zone of Proximal Development The difference between the without assistance performance and the with assistance performance is the ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT. The Zone of Proximal Development The ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT delineates what a child could achieve with the help of the social environment. Scaffolding A process of instruction whereby an adult enhances a child's learning by remaining within the zone of proximal development. The adult provides just enough stimulation to extend beyond the child's capacities withoutassistance but not beyond capacities withassistance. Social Cognition
The cognitive processes that underlie social behavior and social interaction with peers. Ken Dodge's Social InformationProcessing Model Encoding 2. Interpretation 3. Response Selection 4. Response Evaluation 5. Enactment 1. Dodge's SocialInformation Processing Model STEP 1: Encoding > Transformation of outside world into internal experience. STEP 2: Interpretation of social cues > The adolescent attempts to interpret the event. STEP 3: Response Access > The adolescent chooses a response. Dodge's SocialInformation Processing Model STEP 4: Response Evaluation/Decision > The adolescent evaluates selected response. Will the behavior work? Can I do it successfully? STEP 5: Enactment > The adolescent search for behavioral scripts, and then performs the behavior. A Practical Example The Situation: George bumps into Dick in the hallway of school. STEP 1: ENCODING George represents the incident internally. A Practical Example
STEP 2: INTERPRETATION George tries to figure out if Dick bumped into him on purpose. He decides that Dick was trying to be provocative. STEP 3: RESPONSE ACCESS George searches for an appropriate response to getting bumped. George decides to yell at Dick. A Practical Example STEP 4: RESPONSE EVALUATION George evaluates the response he has generated (i.e., yelling). He decides that yelling is a good idea, and that he can do it easily, and that it will improve the situation. A Practical Example STEP 5: ENACTMENT George searches longterm memory for a behavioral script that includes information about how to yell. He finds the script, and then yells at Dick. Impression Formation Summary judgments about others.
Compared to children, impression formation in adolescents is characterized by: Greater differentiation Less Egocentric More abstract Greater use of inference Behavioral Decision Theory Focuses on the logical costbenefit analysis that guides decisions regarding behavior. BDT models include several components: Identifying a behavioral option, considering outcomes, evaluating desirability of each outcome. Adolescents engage in risky behaviors (i.e., unprotected sex, substance abuse, aggression, etc) at a much higher rate than adults. Why do adolescents make bad decisions? Why do adolescents make such bad decisions? What aspect of the costbenefit analyses is going wrong? ...
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