Exam 1 Exam Questions - GEOL1122 Exam 1 Review Spring 2010...

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Unformatted text preview: GEOL1122 Exam 1 Review Spring 2010 What is a fossil? remnant or trace of an ancient living remnant or trace of an ancient living organism preserved in rock or sediment organism preserved in rock or sediment comes from the word fossilis , which is Latin meaning dug up Paleontologist: geologist who studies fossils Paleontology Players Nicholaus Steno (1638-1686) - Danish physician 1669: wrote Dissertationis prodromus Noted the similarity between fossils known as dragons tongues to the teeth of modern sharks Concluded fossil-containing rocks originated as loose sediment that had incorporated the remains of organisms and when sediment hardened to rock, the organisms became part of the rock Paleontology Players Robert Hooke (1635-1703) British scientist, described and sketched fossils in detail, realized most fossils represent extinct species William Smith British engineer who supervised canal construction in England during the 1830s He noted different fossils occur in different layers of strata within a sequence of sedimentary rocks What kinds of rocks contain fossils? Most fossils are found in SEDIMENTS and SEDIMENTARY ROCK Fossils CAN survive low grades of Metamorphism, but not recrystallization and new mineral growth that occur during intermediate- to high- grade metamorphism Fossils DO NOT occur in Igneous rock that crystallizes directly from a melt Fossils CAN occur in air-fall ash deposits, ash settles like sediment (Pompeii) Fossil Formation Fossilization : process of forming a fossil Involves the burial and preservation of an organism or the trace (a footprint or burrow) of an organism Once buried, the organism may be altered to varying degrees by pressure from overlying rock and chemical interaction with groundwater Kinds of Fossils 1. Frozen/Dried Body Fossils: In some environments, whole bodies may be preserved; Ex. Wooly Mammoths These fossils are fairly young, thousands of yrs 1. Body Fossils Preserved in Amber or Tar: Tree sap or resin envelops insects and hardens over time into amber Amber can preserve insects and other delicate organic material (like feathers) for 40 million yrs or more Kinds of Fossils 2. Body Fossils Preserved in Amber or Tar : Where oil has seeped to surface, more volatile components of oil evaporate away and bacteria degrade what remains, leaving behind a sticky residue 2. Preserved/Replaced Bones, Teeth and Shells: Bones and shells consist of durable minerals and may survive in rock Some bone or shell minerals are not stable, and they recrystallize The shape of the bone or shell remains in the rock Kinds of Fossils 4. Permineralized Organisms Permineralization : process by which minerals precipitate in porous material, like wood or bone, from groundwater solutions that seeped into the pores Petrified Wood : cell interiors are replaced with silica, turning the wood into chert Kinds of Fossils...
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2012 for the course GEOLOGY 1122 taught by Professor Sethrose during the Fall '10 term at Georgia State University, Atlanta.

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Exam 1 Exam Questions - GEOL1122 Exam 1 Review Spring 2010...

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