Energy and Mineral Resources - Chapter 12 ENERGY AND...

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ENERGY AND MINERAL RESOURCES Chapter 12
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Energy and Mineral Resources Energy : the capacity to do work To cause something to happen To cause change in a system Resource : any material that can be of use, to make something or to provide energy Energy Resources : geologic materials and processes that can be used to produce heat and electricity or move machines Mineral Resources : natural inorganic materials from which products can be manufactured and/or from which nutrients can be produced
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Sources of Energy in the Earth System Solar radiation Resulting from nuclear fusion reactions in Sun Converted directly into electricity via solar panels, heat water The Sun Gravity Gravitational attraction of the Moon, and Sun, causes ocean tides Solar energy and gravity Solar radiation heats up, air is less dense and rises; cooler, denser air sinks, results in wind Solar energy evaporates water, rain falls and flows downhill
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Sources of Energy in the Earth System Photosynthesis Plants absorb solar energy, plants produce sugar via photosynthesis reactions Burning plant matter (wood) releases potential energy stored in chemical bonds Plant material, or biomass , is used to produce ethanol Chemical reactions Many inorganic chemicals can burn to produce light and energy Ex. dynamite, elemental potassium
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Sources of Energy in the Earth System Fossil fuels Derived from ancient organisms, preserved in rocks for geologic time Nuclear fission Atoms of radioactive elements can split into smaller pieces Tiny amount of mass transforms into a large amount of energy Earth’s internal heat Some internal energy dates from the birth of Earth Some comes from radioactive decay in minerals May result in geothermal energy
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Our energy needs have increased over the last 150 years In the 21 st century, average citizen of an industrialized country uses more than 100 times the amount of resources used by our hunter- gatherer ancestors
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Oil and Gas Oil and natural gas consist of hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons : organic chemicals composed of chain-like or ring-like molecules made of carbon and hydrogen atoms Viscosity and volatility (ability to evaporate) depend on size of molecules Short-chains : less viscous, more volatile (gaseous form at room temperature) Moderate-length-chains : in liquid form Long-chains : more viscous, less volatile; solid form (tar)
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http://www.chemistryland.com/ElementarySchool/BuildingBlocks/BuildingOrganic.htm
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Oil and Gas Hydrocarbons can be used as fuel because they burn (like wood)
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2012 for the course GEOLOGY 1122 taught by Professor Sethrose during the Fall '10 term at Georgia State University, Atlanta.

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Energy and Mineral Resources - Chapter 12 ENERGY AND...

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