Principles of Cognitive Science Notes

Principles of Cognitive Science Notes - Principles of...

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Principles of Cognitive Science January 18, 2012 You are totally FABULOUS! You are absolutely WONDERFUL! You are a GENUIS! Lets ROCK! Gotta party, gotta party! Required book: Symmetry, Causality, Mind by Michael Leyton (MIT Press). Exam: Only one exam: Final - 50 multiple choice questions - Both lecture notes and book readings IMPORTANT: Never use RateMyProfessors for this class. It damages the marking algorithm, and lowers the grades. Cognitive Science= the study of the knowledge functions of the mind What is knowledge? - Allen Newell’s answer: o Newels definitions of knowledge: if you look at a creature, and it is behaving with sufficient flexibility, complezity, and adaptivity. Then you will want to say that it possess knowledge o So he defines knowledge in terms of what it allows creatures to do. - However, this does not actually say what knowledge is - It is an indirect definition. January 23, 2012 Awaken the giant within Leyton’s theory - Leyton gives the following direct definition of knowledge Furthermore: Furthermore: - Causal explanation and memory are essentially equivalent This class will present Leyton’s theory as opposed to Newells’s Introduction (p1 book)
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How is memory related to causal explanation? - Imagine entering a New york subway station. You see a dented garbage can. - Yet the present shape tells you that there was an event in the past where something smashed into the can - So you extracted information about the past from the object - But: memory = information about the past Therefore, since the garbage can has information about the past , it has memory (for you). How is this related to causal explanation ? - Answer: you derive the information about the past (memory) by causally explaining how the garbage can gets to its present state. That is: - One converts an object into memory by causally explaining it - Leyton claims: All memory works in this way Therefore: We will say that the observer converts the object into memory The object might be in the external environment of the observer (e.g., a dented garbage can) January 25, 1012 Why do we need memory? Leyton argues: this single constraint determines the existence and the structure of mind. 1.2 The Process- Recovery Problem - The mind is always faced with only the present. From the present, the mind must recover the past - The mind must carry out the following task Also call this the process-recovery problem. Because X is contained totally within the present, X has no duration. i.e., it is atemporal . (a=no, temporal = time) How can one recover the past from the present?
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The past can no longer be observed. i.e., it is inaccessible . Therefore any arbitrary past can be conjectured. One needs a unique past. 1.3 Process Directionality (pg 5)
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2012 for the course PSYCH 1:830:201 taught by Professor Leyton during the Spring '12 term at Rutgers.

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Principles of Cognitive Science Notes - Principles of...

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