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Unformatted text preview: Adolescent Development Psychology 338
The Family as Context URIE BROFENBRENNER'S ECOLOGICAL THEORY Human development is best understood as a series of changes and accommodations that occur between an active growing person and the immediate social environment (including the family, school, and peer group). URIE BROFENBRENNER Interactions across Systems Interactions between the adolescent and his/her social environment are also affected by the larger social context, including the community, culture, nation, and world economic and political events. understand context. To understand development, we must also Levels of the Environment: Microsystem The relationships and interactions an adolescent has with his/her immediate environment. Structures in the microsystem include the family, school, and neighborhood. Levels of the Environment: Mesosytem Includes links between the structures of the child's microsystem. Examples: Relationships between teacher or other school officials and parents. Relations between the school and neighborhood structure. Levels of the Environment Exosystem Adolescent is not necessarily directly Structures in this layer impact exposed to this level of the environment. development by influencing the microsystem. Example: Workplace schedules for parents. Levels of the Environment: Macrosystem Includes cultural values, customs, and laws. The macrosystem influences all other aspects of a child's environment. Levels of the Environment Chronosystem The historical context. Some Factors that Drive Increases in Family Conflict Cognitive changes in the adolescent Adolescent's drive toward autonomy. Changing roles Life changes faced by parents. Other challenges to the family unit. ADOLESCENCE AS A TIME OF STRESS FOR THE FAMILY UNIT Parents with adolescents report less satisfaction with their marriages than parents of younger or older children. Parents of adolescents report relatively high levels of personal stress. Mothers who have adolescents who challenge them report low life satisfaction. Adolescents and Their Families: Some Issues to Consider Psychological functioning of parents Marital Relationship Influence of Parents and Family on Adolescent. Parents and Family. Influence of Adolescent on Socioeconomic context. Dimensions of Parenting Diana Baumrind RESPONSIVENESS The degree to which the parent displays warmth and acceptance of the child, as well as encouragement and support of independence. DEMANDINGNESS The degree to which the parent sets high expectations and standards for the child, and actively monitors the child's behavior. Diana Baumrind's Parenting Styles Style Demandingness Responsiveness _______________________________________ Authoritative High High Authoritarian High Low Indulgent/ Low High Permissive Indifferent Low Low Parenting Styles and Adolescent Functioning AUTHORITARIAN HOMES: Passive, dependent. Lack selfassurance, intellectual curiosity, social skills. AUTHORITATIVE HOMES: Responsible, selfassured, creative, successful in Parenting Styles and Adolescent Functioning (continued) INDULGENT/PERMISSIVE HOMES: Immature, irresponsible, conform to peers, unable to assume positions of peer leadership. to be involved in delinquent behavior, experiment with drugs, alcohol and sex. INDIFFERENT HOMES: Impulsive, likely Authoritative Parenting Styles across Cultural Subgroups Authoritative Parenting is more common in European American homes than in Asian American, African American, and Hispanic American homes. positive outcomes across groups. Authoritative parenting is predictive of Authoritarian Parenting Styles across Cultural Subgroups Authoritarian parenting is most closely linked to negative outcomes for European American adolescents. Authoritarian parenting does not appear to be a strong a risk factor for Hispanic American, Asian American, and African American adolescents. Interdepence Theory Howard Grotevant Over the course of development, changes occur in the nature of the parent/child dyadic interaction. responsibility in the relationship. source of advice and support. Child begins to assume progressively more Parent moves from be source of authority to Interdependence Theory and the Changing ParentAdolescent Relationship Interdependence theory suggests that the changes in adolescent's role within the family do not reflect rebellion by the adolescent, or conflict between parents and their children. Instead, changes reflect normative development of parent/child relationship. Attachment Theory Mary Ainsworth & John Bowlby The child develops an "attachment" to the parent during early caregiverinfant interactions. The attachment is an enduring social emotional relationship with the parent. Attachment Theory and "Working Models" The nature of the attachment influences the child's "working model" of human relationships. mental representation of how others might be expected to behave toward the child. The working model is a Systems Theory Salvatore Minuchin All members of a family are imbedded in a larger system. A healthy family system fulfills two needs in adolescent development: need to belong and the need to be separate. Problems in Family Systems Families that address only the need to belong, so that they are controlling and overly involved in the adolescent's life, are ENMESHED. not provide a sense of belonging to the child, are DETACHED Families that foster only autonomy, and do Sibling Relationships Have elements of parent/child relationships, and elements of friendships. Adolescents tend to view siblings as important in their lives, and providing the same sorts of closeness the enjoy with other family members. But, sibling relationships are more egalitarian, and they provide some of the same opportunities for companionship and support as friendships. Factors that Influence Sibling Relationships Sibling's gender and age Overall family environment Parent/Child relationships Cultural Differences in Values Individualistic Cultures (e.g., European American) value independence, individual achievement, autonomy from family and from the larger social context. Collectivistic cultures (e.g.,Asian and Hispanic) focus on achieving harmony with others, social affiliation, interdependence with family members. Ethnic/Racial Minority Groups and Family Structure Extended family has a particularly significant role for adolescents who are from minority backgrounds. families. Social roles tend to be more flexible in minority Independence not necessarily highly valued across cultures. Separation from family may not be complete by early adulthood. Factors associated with Divorce that are Potentially Predictive of Adolescent Maladjustment Exposure to marital conflict Disorganized or disruptive parenting Stress in the family Economic difficulties ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course PSYC 338 taught by Professor Lindsey during the Spring '07 term at USC.
- Spring '07