Lecture 12 Evolution by Natural Selection

Lecture 12 Evolution by Natural Selection - Biol142...

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Unformatted text preview: Biol142 Foundations in Modern Biology II Cellular Biology and Genetics Lecture 12 Monday, February 13 th , 2012 Evolution by Natural Selection Reading: Freeman, Emory 2 nd Ed. Chapter 24 (pages 415-432) Learning objectives At the end of this lecture, you will be able to: 1) Describe the transition in philosophy of considering variation of traits within a species as being unimportant to being the key to understanding the nature of species. 2) Explain the evidence that suggests (A) species change in time and (B) are interrelated. 3) Describe the mechanism of evolution by natural section. 4) Test the effect of natural selection on frequency of traits in populations using (A) moths and (B) M. tuberculosis as examples. 1) Early Greek philosophers described the organization of life in a typological manner. Plato claimed that every organism was an example of a perfect essence, or type. These types were unchanging and while individual organisms might deviate from the perfect type, variation is unimportant . 1. Draw a square by hand on a piece of paper. 2. Does your square precisely meet the following formal definition: A four sided polygon characterized by right angles and sides of equal length? 3. Compare your square to that of your neighbors ! are they identical? 4. If your answers to 2 and 3 are no, have you drawn squares? Aristotle ordered these organismal types into a linear scheme called T he G reat C hain of B eing. Aristotle's History of Animals classified organisms in relation to a hierarchical "Ladder of Life" ( scala naturae ), placing them according to complexity of structure and function. Lamarck proposed a pattern of inheritance of acquired characters. His idea was that individuals change in response to their environment and then pass on those changes to their offspring. In 1809, Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck proposed a formal theory of evolution. ... to test Lamarcks idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, the tails of mice were cut off, the mice were allowed to mate, and the progeny were examined for the presence or absence of tails? instead of cropping off the mouse ` s tail they had chosen those with the shortest tails for breeding with others with short tails for several generations?...
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2012 for the course BIO 142 taught by Professor Escabar during the Spring '08 term at Emory.

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Lecture 12 Evolution by Natural Selection - Biol142...

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