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Unformatted text preview: element will be parallel and we have Â± E Â· Â± d A =  Â± E  Â± d A  cos(0) =  Â± E  Â± d A  = EdA . Moreover, the electric Â±eld is also constant at a given radial distance from the center of the sphere, which is again from the spherical symmetry of the charge distribution. Thus the Â±eld is constant over an area integral and we have Â± E Â· Â± d A = E dA = EA = 4 Ï€ r 2 where is the radius of our Gaussian surface. We make use of the above result in 53 a, b, c and 59....
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 Spring '09
 Charge, Gaussian curvature, Torus

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