The forces that propel globalization
have dramatically altered our world,
(that is, becoming more "like"; think, the global
availability of fast food and soft drinks) and strengthening
upholding differences; think, ethnic-nationalism or “culture wars”)
geographic scale refers to the extent of the mapped area.
show a small area in great detail
example, a city block), while
show a large area in limited detail
(for example, a state or
Local interactions to the New World Order
How can this phenomenon be explained?
The answer is quite simple: in general
, people tend to place a higher degree of trust
with individuals whom they interact with more frequently and/or who can be
. Conversely, as one ‘moves up’ the scalar hierarchy,
from local scale to
, and ultimately to
, confidence diminishes.
(1) Human interaction is scale dependent and highly dynamic.
(2) Historically, humans have operated primarily at the local scale with minimal
interaction at larger scales.
Europe, power was linked to land
; feudal lords doled out fiefs (small plots of
land) to vassals.
this system had entirely eroded away in Europe
due in large part to the rise
and the emergence of a
merchant middle class
who were no
longer tied to land ownership as a means of subsistence.
birth of the modern nation-state
centered on the idea of territories unified by
national and cultural similarity, producing a global scale of analysis
The United Nations was constructed as a global check on the power of individual
nations and states, whereby a coalition of states could intervene and or sanction the
actions of other states engaging in criminal or unethical behavior.
a group of people who share cultural traits
, such as language, religion,
history, and so on,
but may not have a recognized territory or political sovereignty.
, on the other hand, refer
to a sovereign political unit
When a homogeneous, or nearly homogeneous, group of people are tied to a
, this is considered a
. Both Iceland and Japan are
examples of nation-states.
the creation of
International Governmental Organizations
(IGOs) like the United
provide stability in the post World War II era
, others promoted the
establishment of local organizations and
like Green Peace as
champions of social and environmental justice.
Wal-Mart or McDonald’s,
generate revenues that exceed the total value of many
small countries’ exports
, that is, their
Gross Domestic Product