globalization - The forces that propel globalization have...

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The forces that propel globalization have dramatically altered our world, simultaneously spreading homogeneity (that is, becoming more "like"; think, the global availability of fast food and soft drinks) and strengthening heterogeneity (as in, upholding differences; think, ethnic-nationalism or “culture wars”) geographic scale refers to the extent of the mapped area. o Therefore, a large scale map would show a small area in great detail (for example, a city block), while o a small scale map will show a large area in limited detail (for example, a state or country map). Local interactions to the New World Order How can this phenomenon be explained? The answer is quite simple: in general , people tend to place a higher degree of trust with individuals whom they interact with more frequently and/or who can be described as local scale affiliations . Conversely, as one ‘moves up’ the scalar hierarchy, from local scale to national scale , and ultimately to global scale , confidence diminishes. (1) Human interaction is scale dependent and highly dynamic. (2) Historically, humans have operated primarily at the local scale with minimal interaction at larger scales. In feudal Europe, power was linked to land ; feudal lords doled out fiefs (small plots of land) to vassals. o this system had entirely eroded away in Europe , due in large part to the rise of capitalism and the emergence of a merchant middle class who were no longer tied to land ownership as a means of subsistence. The birth of the modern nation-state centered on the idea of territories unified by national and cultural similarity, producing a global scale of analysis The United Nations was constructed as a global check on the power of individual nations and states, whereby a coalition of states could intervene and or sanction the actions of other states engaging in criminal or unethical behavior. A nation is a group of people who share cultural traits , such as language, religion, history, and so on, but may not have a recognized territory or political sovereignty. o Both state and country , on the other hand, refer to a sovereign political unit . o When a homogeneous, or nearly homogeneous, group of people are tied to a political unit , this is considered a nation-state . Both Iceland and Japan are examples of nation-states. the creation of International Governmental Organizations (IGOs) like the United Nations to provide stability in the post World War II era , others promoted the establishment of local organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) like Green Peace as champions of social and environmental justice. Transnational Corporations (TNCs) or Multinational Corporations (MNCs), like Wal-Mart or McDonald’s, generate revenues that exceed the total value of many small countries’ exports , that is, their Gross Domestic Product . o
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2012 for the course ISS 310 taught by Professor Online during the Fall '05 term at Michigan State University.

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globalization - The forces that propel globalization have...

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