HNF150 Learning Objectives
Vitamins, Immunity & Cancer
List the fat soluble and water soluble vitamins, and identify examples of how
solubility affects the absorption, transport, storage and excretion of each type.
Fat Soluble: absorbed into the lymph, and they travel into the blood in association with
protein carriers; can be stored in the liver or with other lipids in fatty-tissues, and some
can build up to toxic concentrations
--absorbed like fats: 1. Into lymph 2. Then the blood
--must travel with protein carriers in watery body fluids; stored in liver or fatty
--not readily excreted; tend to build up in tissue
--toxicities are likely from supplements
--needed in periodic doses(perhaps weeks or even months)
Water Solube: absorbed directly into the bloodstream, where they travel freely; mostly
not stored in tissues to any great extent, excesses are excreted in the urine. Toxicities
are not as great
--absorbed directly into blood
--travel freely in watery fluid; most not stored in body
--readily excreted in urine
--toxicities are unlikely but possible
--needed in frequent doses (perhaps 1 to 3 days)
B: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folate, B12, B6, Biotin, Pantothenic acid
Recall how vitamin recommendations are determined from a set of possibilities.
A daily intake should be when averaged over several months is sufficient.
A recommendation can be based on body weight.
For each of the following vitamins, be able to identify the main functions of the
vitamin in the body, deficiency disease, symptoms of deficiency and toxicity: D,
K, A, E, C, Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folate, B12 and B6.
Functions: mineralization of bones and teeth (raises blood calcium and
phosphorus by increasing absorption from digestive tract, withdrawing
calcium from bones, stimulating retention by kidneys)
Deficiency: abnormal bone growth resulting in rickets in children,
osteomalacia in adults, malformed teeth, muscle spasms