ISS Exam 2 Review - Exam 2 Review Sheet FS11 Modern Human...

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Exam 2 Review Sheet FS11 Modern Human Variation the biological basis, or the lack of a biological basis , for the concept of human “races” race is a socially defined concept clines, discordance, concordance Cline : a gradual change in some phenotypic characteristic from one population to the next Concordance : (in genetic studies) the degree of similarity in a pair of twins with respect to the presence or absence of a particular disease or trait. Discordance: opposite of concordance why human variation exists Variation exists often because it is adaptive; Human biological variation can be traced back to the environments in which people live, or environments in which people’s ancestors lived; Biological traits tend to follow a geographical gradient or cline , usually associated with environmental or geographic transition life history stages in humans and key characteristics Prenatal Postnatal Adult cultural, physiological, developmental and genetic adaptations Cultural : Refers to behavioral response, predominantly using material culture to adapt to the environment 1
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Physiological(functional) : Reversible short-term reactions to the environmental stimuli;Takes place at the individual level at any point during an individual’s lifetime;Includes acclimation & acclimatization Developmental(functional) :Irreversible morphological or physiological change in response to environmental stimuli; This adaptation occurs at the individual level during growth and development Genetic : Based on the variation in the genes of an organism (i.e. allele frequency variation);This adaptation occurs at the population level environmental factors and how they affect human variation specifically: o temperature COLD HEAT o altitude o solar radiation o disease (malaria) Bergman’s rule; Allen’s rule Bergmans: predicts that mammals in cold climates tend to have large body Allens: predicts that mammals in cold climates tend to have short, bulky limbs, allowing less loss of body heat characteristics of human skin, including how it is able to respond to temperature and UVR Human skin is naked and sweaty. Too much UVR destroys folate, impairs DNA replication. melanocytes and melanin Melanin : pigment responsible for color of skin. Melanocytes : Melanin producing cells in skin 2
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folate and DNA synthesis; reproductive implications of folate deficiency/loss Folate : B vitamin essential for cell growth and reproduction Implications- Men : Sperm cell defects Implications- Women : Neural tube defects in babies of pregnant women vitamin D and bone formation; rickets Vitamin D : needed for intestines to absorb calcium and phosphorus Rickets : result in Vit. D deficiency. Leads to softening and weakening of bones association of UVR exposure and skin color; global distribution of skin color more UV exposure=darker skin. Darker skin colors around equator
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2012 for the course ISS 220 taught by Professor Bailey during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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ISS Exam 2 Review - Exam 2 Review Sheet FS11 Modern Human...

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