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Punishment - Punishment ,it iscertainlyanill, ,...

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Punishment “When someone who delights in annoying and vexing  peace-love folk receives at last a right good beating, it  is certainly an ill, but everyone approves of it and  considers it as good in itself, even if nothing further  results from it.” --Immanuel Kant
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The Puzzle of Punishment o Punishment typically involves doing things  to people (e.g., incarcerating them, taking  their money, physically harming them, etc.)  that would otherwise be morally  impermissible. o How do these otherwise impermissible  things manage to become permissible?
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Two Kinds of Theories o Backward-looking (or deontological)  theories. o Forward-looking (or consequentialist)  theories.
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Backward-looking Theories o Backward-looking (or deontological)  theories try to justify punishment based on  some fact about the past (e.g., that a  wrong has been done). o There is really only one serious backward- looking theory:  retributivism .
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Retributivism o
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