Exam 2 SG - 14) Intro to research methods Content analysis-...

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Content analysis- characterizes the content of media. The purpose of content analysis is to better the content to fit to a changing world, and various research methods are applied. Surveys- make generalizations about a population of people by addressing questions to a sample of that overall population. Experiments- study media effects under carefully controlled conditions. Alfred Bandura’s bobo doll Interviews- (used by ethnographers) is used as an alternative to survey research. Focus groups- (used by ethnographers) these are free-flowing but guided discussions that produce long transcripts rather than neat statistical tables. Correlation vs. causation- Correlation: means that there is a statistical measure of association between two variables. Independent variable/dependent variable- Independent variable is the cause Dependent variable is the effect of the cause Random assignment- Generalizability- the degree too which the results apply to other populations and settings. Reliability- The degree to which our methods produce stable, consistent results. Research ethics- Limitations of methods discussed- The different types of research methods tell us different things. Content analyses often show that the media are filled with violence and sex, but tell us nothing about the actual effects on the audience. Experimental studies often find evidence of effects, even from extremely short exposures of 15 minutes or less, but cannot assess how other factors may reduce or enhance those effects. Survey studies use larger, more representative samples than experimental research but seldom reach unambiguous conclusions about the effects of media exposure. Ethnographic studies provide deep insights, but the results are sometimes too subjective and particularistic to duplicate. It is important to explore these issues with a variety of different methods to find “what” happens, but also to find or describe the “how” or the “why”. Sampling of methods discussed-
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Exam 2 SG - 14) Intro to research methods Content analysis-...

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