KEYWORDS (for first exam)
Transnational feminism critiques mainstream feminism as
centered primarily in the US and Europe.
It attempts to international women’s studies
beyond the paradigms of “global sisterhood” and “women and development” by paying
careful attention to the asymmetrical effects of globalization, as well as the ongoing
agreements, environmental exploitation, cultural imperialism, etc.).
Further, it makes a
concerted effort to integrate questions of gender, race, sexuality, politics, religion,
economics, family, philosophy, history, and so on in its analyses of world issues.
transnational feminism, but many.
knowledge in particular ways.
They use theories and methods (lenses) through which
they examine and understand the world in which we live.
Up until the 1970s, women’s
experiences, scholarship, and contributions to culture/society were largely left out of the
Women’s studies changed that by producing feminist scholarship both
within the traditional disciplines, as well as across disciplines.
that researchers approach issues from multiple angles in order to better understand how
women’s lives are affected by
relations of power
(for example: a feminist researcher
studying eating disorders might simultaneously examine media representations of teenage
girls, current public policy on education and treatment, how economic disadvantages
affect food choices and overall health, etc.)
That which locates us in a particular group (this can either be an affirmation of
common identity or how we are recognized and confirmed by others).
The term refers to the practice of basing one’s politics on a sense of
personal identity—as female, gay, black, etc.
It has been used by ethnic and sexual
minorities, in particular, as an organizing tool to build cohesive and vocal political
For example, the Combahee River Collective, a US black lesbian group,
mobilized around the issues of sexual, racial, and heterosexual oppressions:
This focusing upon our own oppression is embodied in the concept of
We believe that the most profound and potentially the
most radical politics come directly from our own identity, as opposed to
working to end somebody else’s oppression
This suggests the need to claim an identity before articulating a personal politics and that
the character of the latter will be determined by the former.
During the 1980s and early
1990s, identity politics became the dominant form of radical political organizing in Britain
and the US, with mixed results:
while encouraging a positive proliferation of new
political groupings, the development also made political mobilization across groups more