KEYWORDS (for second exam)
A state can be seen as the political and bureaucratic institutions, practices, and
policies that govern a given territory and population.
This goes beyond the formal realm
of elected government to include, for example, the military, local police forces, social
services (welfare, social security, etc.), tax collection, census bureaus, and the law.
A nation implies a community of people who are believed to be or believe
themselves to be similar or connected by a common identity.
This commonality is often
expressed as a religious, racial, or ethnic identity.
According to Benedict Anderson, a
nation “is an
political community—and imagined as both
Nationalism can loosely be defined as the following: 1) a marker of national
identity built around common membership in an already established state (what it means
to be an
, for example); 2) movements of peoples to establish statehood, or to
re-establish it after colonization or foreign occupation (various independence movements
in Africa, Latin America, the former Soviet Union, and so on); and 3) cultural
movements that may not necessarily desire independent statehood, but nevertheless,
organize around particular identities in order to advocate for political change (Hindu
nationalism, Black nationalism, etc.).
Cultural nationalism is a form of nationalism in which the nation is
defined as a community of people with a shared culture, as opposed to a nationalism
based on civic organization or state institutions.
nationalism), the Black Panthers, Hindutva (Hindu nationalism), Queer Nation, Zionism,
and so on.
Similar to the definition of colonization except that the colonizing
a particular nation-state.
For example, native American
reservations—although, legally, sovereign nations—are treated as if they were colonies
of the United States proper with all the practices of domination that entails (resource
extraction, violation of treaty rights, forced relocation, suppression of indigenous
languages, importation of cultural norms, etc.).
Originally a term in Marxism, commodification is a
process by which material objects are turned into marketable goods with monetary
Commodities are goods marketed to consumers in a commodity
Commodity production and consumption under capitalism are always already
gendered and, thus, are important concepts to feminism.
For example, women (especially