volcanoes - The Wrath of Vulcan: Volcanic Eruptions Where...

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Unformatted text preview: The Wrath of Vulcan: Volcanic Eruptions Where do we find Volcanoes? Go back to tectonics! Parcutin -1943, near Mexico City Began as a fissure in a cornfield owned by a farmer on February 20 , 1943 . 10 years later, it was ~1000 feet high! Mount Vesuvius, and Pompeii Mount Vesuvius, and Pompeii 79 AD volcanic eruption buried the city and its Terrified occupants. Rediscovered 1,600 years Later. Buried by 6 m of ash Naples, Italy17 miles away Volcanism Process of magma breaching land surface and running on the crust where it solidifies into rock Remember when magma reaches the surface it is termed lava Popocatepetl W. W. Norton Volcano components Steep walled depression at summit of volcano connected to magma chamber Space below ground filled with magma Chimney - Long vertical pipe connecting magma chamber with vent Flanks What happens when the chamber starts to fill with magma?! http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Sisters/WestUplift/ground_uplift_may2001.html Each color band (blue to red) represents 2.5 cm topo change. Here total change is 10 cm from 8/96-10/00. Uplift most likely 7 km below surface and caused by magma accumulation Oregon Magma builds up in the magma chamber, Which causes uplift of the surface http://solidearth.jpl.nasa.gov/rp.html The steady inflation of edifice occurred from 1993 to 1995 and culminated in resumption of eruption activity in late 1995. Ground deformation data are derived from Diff. Radar Interferometry and is represented by color contours. Ground deformation associated with magma intrusion at Mount Etna, Italy Calder a Large circular depression with steep walls and fairly flat floor formed after eruption as the center of the volcano collapses into the drained magma chamber below > 1km in diameter Greg Vaughn /Tom Stack Crater Lake, Oregon Volcano Status Volcano Status Recurrence interval of eruptions at a single volcano can range Recurrence interval of eruptions at a single volcano can range from months, to years, to centuries from months, to years, to centuries Active Volcanoes- Active Volcanoes- erupted recently (e.g. Kilauea) erupted recently (e.g. Kilauea) Dormant Volcanoes- Dormant Volcanoes- have not erupted for centuries to have not erupted for centuries to thousands of years (does not mean they wont go again! e.g. thousands of years (does not mean they wont go again! e.g. Mt. Ranier) Mt. Ranier) Extinct volcanoes- Extinct volcanoes- Erupted in the past, but will not erupt again Erupted in the past, but will not erupt again (e.g. Watchungs in New Jersey- Jurassic to Triassic) (e.g. Watchungs in New Jersey- Jurassic to Triassic) Tectonic implications Tectonic implications How can you tell? What does it look like?...
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2012 for the course GEOL 100 taught by Professor Neitzke during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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volcanoes - The Wrath of Vulcan: Volcanic Eruptions Where...

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