energy_resources

energy_resources - PlanetEarth EnergyandMining...

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Energy and Mining The World of Hydrocarbons, Coal and  Natural Resources Planet Earth
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Commodity in great demand in 17-1800’s. Used for lubrication + clean burning lamps. Oil from the whale’s head and jaw does not congeal in extreme cold, nor require any refining. Commodity in great demand in 17-1800’s. Used for lubrication + clean burning lamps. Oil from the whale’s head and jaw does not congeal in extreme cold, nor require any refining. Whale Oil Whale Oil What came before What came before petroleum products? petroleum products?
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Includes Coal, Oil and Natural Gas (among others) Produced by organic debris deposited throughout geologic  time (Paleozoic through Tertiary) Large  accumulations of organic matter Burial Small percentage of material remains to generate fossil fuels Highly dependent of paleo-environmental conditions Reverse “solar energy” Fossil Fuels
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Fossil Fuels  = Modern Energy  Staple Nonrenewable  resources -  finite and exhaustible over  human time scale Large accumulations of  organic material (high in  organic Carbon) in anoxic  basins (seas, lakes, and  oceans) and swamps Traffic……set up 300 million years ago
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W. W. Norton
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U.S. Energy Consumption, from  Noll, SUNY Brockport
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Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks Coal, Oil Shale and asphalitic substances Oil and Natural Gas “not technically” a rock Organic matter (often 50-60% organic Carbon)  incorporated into sediment Remainder of sediment siliciclastic, carbonate material Generally accumulates in restricted basins, stagnant  swamps and bogs Low O 2  environments (Amount organic matter) > (available O 2 ) =  preservation
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Introduction to Coals Most abundant carbonaceous  sediment Composed of combustible organic  matter Contains impurities of ash  (siliciclastic materials) Compacted plant materials Accumulates in low oxygen  swamps and marshes Coals are defined by 50% weight  organic material threshold, 70%  volume Carboniferous “onslaught” (290-354 m.y.)
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Global Coal  Reserves W. W. Norton. Adapted from Craig et al., 1985 PALAEOBOTANICAL RESEARCH GROUP   Why the Spike?
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Coal Formation: Deposition,  Compaction, Induration Coal accumulates in anoxic marsh and swamp  environments Preserved in areas where rapid burial prevents decomposition Accumulation > decomposition from microbial and chemical  processes Water table generally close to peat surface Deposited in temperate mid-latitudes in  geologic past Precambrian algal coals exist, but deposition peaked in  Devonian/Carboniferous (established land vegetation) 30 to 1 ratio of peat to coal Temperatures reach > 200 degrees centigrade
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Depositional Setting Marine  Transgression W. W. Norton
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W. W. Norton Peat
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Remember, it’s a sedimentary
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2012 for the course GEOL 100 taught by Professor Neitzke during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.

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energy_resources - PlanetEarth EnergyandMining...

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