AOSC Final Review (2nd half)

AOSC Final Review - AOSC Final Review Guide 1 What is the Ekman spiral How can this cause upwelling-Ekman Spiral the second layer of the ocean is

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AOSC Final Review Guide 1. What is the Ekman spiral? How can this cause upwelling? -Ekman Spiral: the second layer of the ocean is dragged along by the top layer by a frictional force. --It in turn will also acquire a Coriolis force and the resultant motion of the second layer will be to the right of the first layer --This process continues down through the ocean current until the direction of the ocean current at a depth can be at 90 degrees to the direction at the surface -The overall Ekman transport is 90 degree to the right of the surface wind -Causes upwelling because the resultant Ekman spiral produces a current that flows away from the coast --Water from deep in the ocean is brought up to replace the water transported away (upwelling) 2. What causes El Nino? -El Nino: the periodic warming of the equatorial Pacific Ocean between South America and the date line -Usually the trade winds are North Westerly in the Northern Hemisphere and South Westerly in the Southern Hemisphere, which causes the ocean at the equator to flow in a westerly direction -Strong upwelling along the Peruvian Coast -El Nino = the winds weaken or reverse, no upwelling -La Nina = the counterpoint of El Nino, winds intensify and upwelling increases **LA NINA IS THE EXACT OPPOSITE OF EL NINO 3. What is needed for tropical cyclones to form? -Needed for Formation --When ocean waters have reached max temps of -25 0 C or higher --Some form of disturbance --If winds are < 119 but > 61 tropical storm 4. What are frontal systems (cold, warm, occluded)? What weather conditions exist ahead of and behind them? What are the distinct features associated with each type of front (speed, type of precipitation)? -Fronts: boundary surfaces that separate air masses --In general one air mass is warmer and often contains more moisture than the other --Fronts form between 2 contrasting air passes -Cold Front: cold air moving into warm air --Warm air is forcefully moved upwards --If warm air is moist then large amounts of latent heat is released -Warm Front: warm air mass moving into cold air mass --as warm air climbs over the retreating cold air, it expands and cools (clouds, precipitation) --Cirrus clouds followed by Cirrostratus and then Nimbostratus clouds --Light to moderate precipitation over a large area and for extended periods
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-Occluded Front: when a cold front overtakes the warm front, forcing the warm air up above the two cold air masses --Can have warm occluded fronts (cold front is warmer than front it overtakes): Pacific Coast --Cold occluded front is reverse of above: east of Rockies 5. Extra tropical cyclones are low-pressure systems that form in the mid-latitudes. Why do they usually intensify over a mountain range? -Usually intensifies over a mountain rage (ie: the Rockies) because this squeezes the
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2012 for the course AOSC 200 taught by Professor Hudson during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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AOSC Final Review - AOSC Final Review Guide 1 What is the Ekman spiral How can this cause upwelling-Ekman Spiral the second layer of the ocean is

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