78-KINGSUK - Kingsuk Das, B.Tech. Chemical Engineering,...

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Page 1 of 26 Kingsuk Das, B.Tech. Chemical Engineering, University of Calcutta Email: kngsk.das@gmail.com Theoretical Study of Air Stripping of Ammonia from Waste Water
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Page 2 of 26 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The reduction of chemical discharge to the environment has become a major issue in the chemical and petroleum industries. Since organic/inorganic compounds are the majority of the chemicals produced today, minimization of these compounds in water is present task for the operating plant and industries. The stringent government regulations and industrial criteria have made many waste water treatment plants incapable of handling the job. The industrial effluent contains sour water, one of the major constituent of sour water is nitrogenous compounds like ammonia, organic nitrogen, nitrates and nitrites. The removal of nitrogen from waste water is at present receiving considerable attention because of the various deleterious effects associated with its presence in water. These include eutrophication, dissolved oxygen depletion, reduction in chlorine disinfectant power and toxicity to fish and other aquatic species. There are various physical-chemical and biological processes are available for ammonia-nitrogen removal. Thus abatement of ammonia from a flowing stream or river is difficult to sustain and control due to the climatic conditions of the region and the efficiency concerned with the process undertaken to achieve the goal. From the forgoing discussion it is conceivable that discharge of waste water should conform certain permissible limits below which the health effect is not admissible. Such standard development has been carried out through rigorous epidemiological studies in most of the developed nations. Ministry of Environment and Forests Notification, 2008 issued legal bindings based on climatic regulations. These are called the environment (Protection) Amendment Act. Table - 1 PETROLEUM & OIL REFINERY Effluent Limiting value for concentration (mg/l except for pH) 1. pH 6.0 8.5 2. Oil & grease 5.0 3. BOD 15.0 4. COD 125.0 5. Suspended solids 20.0 6. Phenols. 0.35 7. Sulfides 0.5 8. CN 0.20 9. Ammonia as N 15.0 10. TKN 1.0 11. P 3.0 12. Cr 0.1 13. Pb 0.1 14. Hg 0.01 15. Zn 5.0 16. Ni 0.1
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Page 3 of 26 At present, three principal methods are on the track for removing nitrogen from waste water. The methods are (i) ammonia stripping, (ii) selective ion exchange, and (iii) microbial denitrification. Among these methods ion exchange method in clinoptilolite method was studied by many researchers, but complexity in investigation was quite evident from their outcomings. On the other hand microbial denitrification is not economically viable due to the additional cost of ozonization using ozone generator. The methods can unveil briefly in a short note as follows. 1. Selective ion exchange : Here an up flow fixed bed & fluidized bed columns are used to operate with different ammonia concentration in municipal waste water. The clinptilolite is used as the packing material, Ca+2 and K+ ions are responsible for ammonia removal. So the
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This note was uploaded on 03/28/2012 for the course CHME 325 taught by Professor Bhujmgı during the Spring '12 term at Middle East Technical University.

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78-KINGSUK - Kingsuk Das, B.Tech. Chemical Engineering,...

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