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PSYCHIATRIC NURSING The Psychosocial theories attempt to explain human behavior, health and mental illness. These theories suggest strategies that the clinician can use to work with clients. Some of the most famous psychosocial theories are the psychoanalytic, developmental, interpersonal, humanistic, behavioral and existential 1. Sigmund Freud based his theory of childhood development on the belief that sexual energy, termed as libido, was the driving force of human behaviour. Children progress through 5 stages. Each stage has a specific zone in which the child dissipates libido. Mrs. Cairne asks the nurse about her problem. “Nurse, my 4-year old son has recently been fondling his genitals frequently. I’m afraid that he will grow up to be a sexually preoccupied man, so I always tell him to stop and that what he is doing is bad.” The most appropriate answer would be: a. “Yes, you should continue doing that because research study shows that majority of rapists and sexual offenders have a history of fondling their genitals when they were little.” b. “You can allow the child to do it occasionally, but if the child is doing it more often, then that is the time to make him stop.” c. “You should just let your child do as he please as what he is doing is harmless.” d. “You should punish the child by hitting his hand so that he will not do that disgusting thing again.” RATIONALE: C. In the Phallic stage, the genitals are the focus of interest, stimulation and excitement. Masturbation is only common. This indicates that the child is exploring himself and it helps the child to advance to the next stage. If the child encounters conflicts in this stage, psychological energy or libido becomes fixated. Therefore, the child should be allowed and not punished. (p. 51, Principles and Practices of Psychiatric Nursing by Stuart and Laraia 8 th edition, 2005; p. 48, Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing by Videbeck 4 th edition, 2008) 2. The personality components of a person are the Id, Ego and Superego. The development of each component takes place at a different time. Simply put, the ego is the balancing force between the impulsive and primitive desires of the id and the stringent rules of the superego. Nurse Gondar is correct when he states that the superego develops during the: a. genital phase b. anal stage c. phallic stage d. latency phase RATIONALE: D. The superego formation is during the latency phase (5-11 y/o), the id is present at birth while the ego develops gradually during the oral phase from rudimentary
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structures present at birth. (p. 48, Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing by Videbeck 4 th edition, 2008) 3. Erik Erikson was a psychoanalyst which described the eight psychosocial stages of development. In each stage, the person must complete a life task that is essential to well-being and mental health. These tasks allow the person to achieve life’s virtues. To achieve the virtue of competence, the person must be able to: a. view the world as safe and reliable and relationships as nurturing, stable and
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