Chapter 10 - Quality Control

Chapter 10 - Quality Control - Qu al i t yCon t r ol 1 The...

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1 Qualit y Cont r ol
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2 Acceptance sampling Process control Continuous improvement Inspection before/after production Inspection and corrective action during production Quality built into the process The least progressive The most progressive
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3 Inspection An appraisal activity that compares goods or services to a standard Inspection issues: 1. How much to inspect and how often 2. At what points in the process to inspect 3. Whether to inspect in a centralized or on-site location 4. Whether to inspect attributes or variables
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4 Cost Optimal Amount of Inspection Cost of inspection Cost of passing defectives Total Cost
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5 Typical Inspection Points: Raw materials and purchased parts Finished products Before a costly operation Before an irreversible process Before a covering process
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Type of Business Inspection Points Characteristics Fast Food Cashier Accuracy Counter Area Appearance, productivity Eating Area Cleanliness, no loitering Building and grounds Appearance, safety hazards Kitchen Cleanliness, purity of food, food storage, health regulations 6
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Type of Business Inspection Points Characteristics Hotel/motel Parking lot Safety, good lighting Accounting/billing Accuracy, timeliness Building and grounds Appearance and safety Main desk Appearance, waiting times, accuracy of bills Maid service Completeness, productivity Personnel Appearance, manners, productivity Reservations/occupanc y Over/underbooking, percent occupancy Restaurants Kitchen, menus, meals, bills Room service Waiting time, quality of food Supplies Ordering, receiving, inventories 7
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8 Effects on cost and level of disruption are a major issue in selecting centralized vs. on-site inspection Centralized Specialized tests that may best be completed in a lab More specialized testing equipment More favorable testing environment On-Site Quicker decisions are rendered Avoid introduction of extraneous factors Quality at the source
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9 Quality control seeks Quality of Conformance A product or service conforms to specifications A tool used to help in this process: SPC Statistical evaluation of the output of a process Helps us to decide if a process is “in control” or if corrective action is needed
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10 Two basic questions concerning variability: 1. Are the variations random? Process control 1. Given a stable process, is the inherent variability of the process within a range that conforms to performance criteria Process capability
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11 Variation Random (common cause) variation : Natural variation in the output of a process, created by countless minor factors Unavoidable with the current process Assignable (special cause) variation : A variation whose cause can be identified and eliminated
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12 SPC involves periodically taking samples of process output and computing sample statistics: Sample means The number of occurrences of some outcome Sample statistics are used to judge the randomness of process variation.
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Chapter 10 - Quality Control - Qu al i t yCon t r ol 1 The...

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