chapter1-1.121student version.121

chapter1-1.121student version.121 - Chapter 1: Establishing...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1: Establishing a Chapter 1: Establishing a Framework for Business Communication What is Communication? What is Communication? • Communication is the process by which [meaningful and] understandable information is exchanged between individuals using a common system of signs, symbols, and behaviors. Barriers That Promote Barriers That Promote Miscommunication • Pure communication is impossible, as we all bring prior associations to the communication process. • We communicate in many ways, and much of our communication is unconscious. • We see what we expect to see. • Aoccdrnig to a rscheearcehr at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? Barriers That Promote Barriers That Promote Miscommunication • Pure communication is impossible, as we all bring prior associations to the communication process. • We communicate in many ways, and much of our communication is unconscious. • We see what we expect to see. • We don’t see what we don’t expect to see. Barriers That Promote Barriers That Promote Miscommunication • Pure communication is impossible, as we • • • • all bring prior associations to the communication process. We communicate in many ways, and much of our communication is unconscious. We see what we expect to see. We don’t see what we don’t expect to see. We all perceive things differently. What are the Basic Forms of What are the Basic Forms of Communication? • Verbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication Verbal Communication is Using Verbal Communication is Using Words • • • • Writing Speaking Reading Listening Nonverbal Communication is Nonverbal Communication is Everything Else • • • • • • • Body Language Use of Space Paralanguage Dress/Appearance Color Silence Time What are the Levels of What are the Levels of Communication? • Intrapersonal Communication • Interpersonal and Group Communication – Two Way, Face­to­Face – Two Way, Not Face­to­Face • Organizational Communication – One Way, Not Face­to­Face • Public (Mass) Communication – One Way, Not Face­to­Face Functions and Forms of Functions and Forms of Organizational Communication • Internal Communication – recipients within the organization – Formal Channels • Subject to Distortion and Fragmentation of Information Downward/Upward/Horizontal Memos, e­mail, telephone • • – Informal Channels (Grapevine) • External Communication – recipients outside the organization – Letters, e­mail, telephone Downward Channels Downward Channels • Instruct/Inform • Keep Routine and Special Activities Moving Smoothly and Efficiently • Build and Maintain Employee Morale and Goodwill Upward Channels Upward Channels • Provide Information for Decision­Making • Provide Feedback on Company Operations (may be misleading and involves both trust in manager and risk to subordinate) Horizontal Channels Horizontal Channels • Provide Information for Decision­Making • Provide Information for Coordination of Activities A Model of Communication A Model of Communication • • • • • • Sender Conceptualizes Idea Sender “Encodes” (organizes) the Message Sender Selects Communication Channel (verbal and/or nonverbal) and Medium (face­to­face, phone, e­mail, etc.) Message is Transmitted Receiver “Decodes” the Message (interprets with as little distortion as possible) Receiver Sends Feedback Sender May Provide Feedback Sender May Provide Feedback • Direct Feedback ­ Immediate; Verbal and/or Nonverbal • Delayed Feedback Interference May Occur During Interference May Occur During Communication Process • Interference is Termed “Noise” • Five Types of “Noise” Physical Noise Physical Noise • Interference in the encoding, decoding, and transmission of a message due to physical, environmental factors Physiological Noise Physiological Noise • Interference due to how you feel physically: hot, cold, sick, tired Psychological Noise Psychological Noise • Interference due to how you feel mentally: angry, happy, sad, motivated, fearful Perceptual Noise Perceptual Noise • Interference due to your values, beliefs, • • • • • experiences, background, education, etc. Selective Perception: Choosing the details that seem important from the vast array of information at hand Denotative and Connotative Meanings Euphemisms Poor Listening Cultural Differences Semantic Noise Semantic Noise • Interference due to: – Not understanding the language (cultural to an extent) – Understanding the language but not understanding the words (jargon, bypassed instructions) Forces Influencing Business Forces Influencing Business Communication • Legal and Ethical Constraints (set boundaries within which communication can occur) • Diversity Challenges (differences between sender/receiver in areas such as culture, age, gender, education, sexual orientation, disabilities, etc.) Forces Influencing Business Forces Influencing Business Communication • Changing Technology (greater opportunity for faster and broader communication but may create new obstacles and barriers) • Team Environments (teams create synergy—which the “whole” is greater than the sum of the part—but requires trust, participation, and effective communication by team members) ...
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