questions for review1 - Ask about: 1. Calculation on change...

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Ask about: 1. Calculation on change in frequency p= p(1-p)s --- how do you calculate each value?? 2. Calculations for z bar—population changes 3. Transitional stages—clarifying if fossil records indicate this as evidence; how does this qualify as evidence for evolution?—one of the criticisms that Darwin raised about his own theory was that it seems impossible for natural selection to generate something complicated like an eye, because it has so many complicated parts. There must have been many mutations to eventually create the eye; how can this occur to an organism that originally had no vision? Complicated adaptations involve many changes—involves smaller steps, where each step involves a small number of mutations that produces an intermediate better than the last one. Eventually you develop a complex organ. We can observe this by comparing different species—in the case of octopus eyes, we compared different species of octopi, some of which have poorer vision, and we just compare the structures. 4. Positive heritability- WHAT IS ADDITIVE GENETIC VARIATION? For the purpose of this class, genetic variance or additive genetic variance is what contributes to evolutionary change. 5. Convergent evolution between marsupials and mammals: some things come in discrete , or categorical forms (left or right handed.etc. .) vs. body size, which is characterized on a continuous scale because it can have any value. o one locus with two alleles; frequency of 3 genotypes: Aa, AA, aa = discrete distribution of GENOTYPES; Equation for variance: x= 69cm, 70cm, 72cm; mean x= 70cm o Sigmasquared= Average of (x-70)^2 o [(68cm-70)^2+(70-70)^2 + (72-70)^2 ] / 3= 4+0+4/3= 8/3 cm^2 formula for heritability + example: o h^2= Vg/Vp ==genetic variance/ phenotypic variance o phenotypic variance= genetic variance + environmental variance= Vg+ Ve o h^2= Vg/ Vg+Ve == the fraction of all phenotypic variance that is genetic. o Plot offspring mean vs parent mean to get REGRESSION LINE; slope = h^2 Replicate plate experiment: o you have a cell, and you’re going to put it into a flask to get a culture of hundreds of millions of cells. o You pour some of the solution out onto a MASTER petri plate and let it incubate for a few days o After a couple of days, you will see hundreds of colonies, each coming from a single cell o Then you make these replicate plates, which are copied from the original plate using a disc with felt on it. Some of the colonies will stick to the velvet and then get transferred onto the new plate in the same position as the master plate.
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questions for review1 - Ask about: 1. Calculation on change...

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