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Exam 1 Definitions
Chapter 2: Getting Started with Statistics
1.
Population: the complete set of individuals, objects, or scores that is under study.
2.
Sample: a subset of the population of interest.
Ex: Sample of Male Athletes in Little League From a Larger Population of All
Youths in Athletic Programs
3.
Variables: Any property that may take on different values at different times and may
change with various conditions.
4.
Constant: A value that is fixed (does not change under different conditions)
5.
Discrete variable: A variable that has no values in between each unit (ex: hair color,
party affiliation)
6.
Continuous variable: A variable that can have an infinite number of values between
each unit (ex: temperature, concentrations of hormones in the bloodstream, etc.)
7.
Data: a measurement of a variable
8.
Statistic: a summary calculation on data collected from a sample
9.
Parameter: A summary calculation on data collected from a population.
10.
Independent variable: a predictor property that the researcher either manipulates
experimentally or records as naturally changing condition (thus, a quasi independent
variable)
Predictor variable
11.
Dependent variable: an outcome property that the researcher measures
referred
to outcome variable
12.
Descriptive
statistics: Numbers that
summarize
a set of data in one of four ways,
including a measure of central tendency, a measure of variability of the scores, a
measure of the shape of the distribution of scores, and a measure of the size of the
sample (average/mean, range, SD)
13. Mean:
A statistic that measures the middle, or central tendency, of a set of scores
and is calculated by taking the sum of the scores and dividing by the number of
scores (ex: n1+n2+n3/total N’s)
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 Spring '08
 MCCLELLAND

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