Sleep_S12 - Biological Rhythms & Sleep Overview...

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Biological Rhythms & Sleep
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Overview Properties of sleep Why do we sleep? Why do we dream? Abnormalities of sleep
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Human sleep cycle (REM sleep) Sleep Cycle = 90 – 110 miunutes
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REM to slow wave sleep cycle repeats about 3-5 times per night. As the night progresses, REM time per cycle increases slightly and deep sleep decreases. Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005)
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Sleep Patterns Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005)
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Elderly Young adult
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Measuring Brain Activity: Electroencephalogram Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005) Bear M.F. et al., Neuroscienc: Exploring the Brain (2007)
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EEG Patterns: Waking State High frequency (15-20 Hz) Low amplitude Asynchronous Bear M.F. et al., Neuroscienc: Exploring the Brain (2007) Relaxed Attentive Low frequency (9-12 Hz) High amplitude Synchronous
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EEG Patterns: Sleep State Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005)
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Brain wave forms (theta rhythm) that are prevalent during behaviors most related to species survival are also present during REM sleep.
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REM sleep Time of dreaming Powerful inhibition of motor neurons involved in movements of the extremities Brain stem neurons are highly active creating diffuse activation of cortical regions EEG characteristic wave forms are similar to awake states
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REM sleep NREM sleep EEG desynchrony Lack of muscle tone Rapid eye movements Clitoral or penile erection Irregular heart rate and respiration EEG synchrony Moderate muscle tone Slow or absent eye movements Lack of genital activity Decreased heart rate and respiration
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Reticular formation and REM Discrete regions of the caudal reticular formation appear to be important for different aspects of REM
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Basal forebrain Lesions induce insomnia in cats (and rats) Contains acetylcholinergic cells that project to the cortical areas – important for cortical arousal POAH – important for thermoregulation induces SWS ACh cells POAH Cortex inhibition inhibition excitation
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Other brain regions… Locus coeruleus Noradrenergic neurons – related to behavioral arousal Raphe Nuclei Serotonergic neurons –activation causes cortical arousal Lesions can cause insomnia Serotonin interrupts REM Aston-Jones and Bloom (1981) J Neurosci 1: 876-886. Activity of NE neurons in LC REM
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Neurochemical Control of Sleep Huang, A., Current Opinion in Pharmacology 2007, 7:33– ↑ GABA sleep ↑ adenosine sleep ↑ Histamine arousal Caffein blocks adenosine receptors Benzodiazepine (Valium) Antihistamine drugs (Benadryl)
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2012 for the course PSY 308 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Sleep_S12 - Biological Rhythms & Sleep Overview...

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