Neuroplasticity_S12 - Neuroplasticity Overview Neurodevelopment Experience-induced neuroplasticity during development Neurodevelopmental disorders

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Neuroplasticity
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Overview Neurodevelopment Experience-induced neuroplasticity during development Neurodevelopmental disorders Experience-induced neuroplasticity during adulthood Adult neurogenesis Brain damage & Stroke
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Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005) Development of the nervous system formation of neural tube
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Stages of Development Neurogenesis Cell Migration Differentiation Synaptogenesis (connection) Apoptosis (cell death) Synaptic Rearrangement Myelination Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005)
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Neurogenesis Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005) Bear M.F. et al., Neuroscienc: Exploring the Brain (2007) Ventricular zone neuroepithelial cells
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Migration & Aggregation Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005) a. Somal translocation b. Glia-mediated migration (radial glial) Radial migration Tangential migration
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Differentiation 1. Cell autonomous (genetic) 2. Induction/Cell-cell interaction (environmental) Bear M.F. et al., Neuroscienc: Exploring the Brain (2007) Cortical neurons: Inside first Outside last Basis of stem cell use
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Synaptogenesis Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2002, 2005) Most occur postnatally during the first 5 years of life.
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Synaptogenesis Bear M.F. et al., Neuroscienc: Exploring the Brain (2007) Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005)
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Apoptosis: programmed cell death Need neurotrophic factors for survival NGF (nerve growth factor) BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) Neurotrophins 20-80% Bear M.F. et al., Neuroscienc: Exploring the Brain (2007) Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005)
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Myelination Spinal cord hindbrain midbrain forebrain Rosenzweig M.R. et al., Biological Psychology (2005) Most fibers become myelinated during postnatal development.
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Myelination Brain Research Bulletin, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 255–266, 2001 1 month 2 months 3-6 months 7-9 months >9 months
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Experience-induced neuroplasticity during development Synapse overproduction and selective elimination During development, many more synapses are created than are maintained into adulthood. It is believed that more effective synapses are maintained and less effective synapses are lost.
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2012 for the course PSY 308 taught by Professor Jones during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas at Austin.

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Neuroplasticity_S12 - Neuroplasticity Overview Neurodevelopment Experience-induced neuroplasticity during development Neurodevelopmental disorders

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