4 Forces - Chapter 4 Forces and Newtons Laws of Motion...

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Chapter 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion 47 Chapter 4 FORCES AND NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION PREVIEW Dynamics is the study of the causes of motion, in particular, forces . A force is a push or a pull. We arrange our knowledge of forces into three laws formulated by Isaac Newton: the law of inertia, the law of force and acceleration ( F net = m a ), and the law of action and reaction. Friction is the force applied by two surfaces parallel to each other, and the normal force is the force applied by two surfaces perpendicular to each other. Newton’s law of universal gravitation states that all masses attract each other with a gravitational force which is proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. The gravitational force holds satellites in orbit around a planet or star. The content contained in all sections of chapter 4 of the textbook is included on the AP Physics B exam. QUICK REFERENCE Important Terms coefficient of friction the ratio of the frictional force acting on an object to the normal force exerted by the surface in which the object is in contact; can be static or kinetic dynamics the study of the causes of motion (forces) equilibrium the condition in which there is no unbalanced force acting on a system, that is, the vector sum of the forces acting on the system is zero. force any influence that tends to accelerate an object; a push or a pull free body diagram a vector diagram that represents all of the forces acting on an object friction the force that acts to resist the relative motion between two rough surfaces which are in contact with each other gravitational field space around a mass in which another mass will experience a force gravitational force the force of attraction between two objects due to their masses
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Chapter 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion 48 inertia the property of an object which causes it to remain in its state of rest or motion at a constant velocity; mass is a measure of inertia inertial reference frame a reference frame which is at rest or moving with a constant velocity; Newton’s laws are valid within any inertial reference frame kinetic friction the frictional force acting between two surfaces which are in contact and moving relative to each other law of universal gravitation the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. mass a measure of the amount of substance in an object and thus its inertia; the ratio of the net force acting on an accelerating object to its acceleration net force the vector sum of the forces acting on an object newton the SI unit for force equal to the force needed to accelerate one kilogram of mass by one meter per second squared non-inertial reference frame a reference frame which is accelerating; Newton’s laws are not valid within a non-inertial reference frame. normal force
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This note was uploaded on 03/30/2012 for the course PHYSICS 201 taught by Professor Rollino during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.

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4 Forces - Chapter 4 Forces and Newtons Laws of Motion...

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