PHI 334 Fall 2011

PHI 334 Fall 2011 - PHI 334 Fall 2011 Exam 2 Review Sheet 1...

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PHI 334 Fall 2011 Exam 2 Review Sheet 1. According to Duska, there are three possible reasons why ethics courses are useless. What are these three reasons? How does he show that each of these reasons is flawed? 1) People already know right from wrong (so business ethics courses are a waste of time), Does not follow from a to b. This reason misses the point because Business ethics courses don’t always do this. The point of a BE course is to improve our moral knowledge… learn the “why” behind the “that”. Can become better deliberators/better at justification and reasoning. 2) Moral behavior is a result of training and can’t be improved by courses. There are 2 kinds of knowledge: 1. Knowledge that (facts, info) and 2. Knowledge how (skills). Critic thinks that moral knowledge is only a know how. 3) Skeptical reason: no one can know right from wrong so there is no ethical knowledge to be taught. 2. What is ethical relativism? Why is ethical relativism a form of skepticism? What are Duska’s three critiques of ethical relativism? 1. Primary reason to reject claim: learn the why behind it. We aren’t here to learn x is right and wrong but why x is right and wrong. 2. There are 2 kinds of knowledge. Critique rests on the know how/know that distinction. Critical self-reflection required to improve know how is know that. 3. There are 3 kinds of skepticism: 1. Subjectivism: denies objective knowledge and maintains that everyones moral opinion is right for them. 2. Emotivism: the emotivist thinks ethical assertions are merely express of pro or con attitudes that simplay reflect subjective feelings. 3. Relativism: Every group (every person) has a set of moral beliefs that are true for that group (person). Relativism is a form of skepticism. If you know x then x is true. But you can know that something is false. We can have false beliefs, we can believe that x even if x is false. Relativist is a skeptic because they deny the possibility of saying that moral claims are true or false, because they think 2 people or groups can disagree and both be right.
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