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ISC SG1 - MAS|ISC|JOU 319 Fall 2011 Mid-term Study Guide I...

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MAS|ISC|JOU 319: Fall 2011 Mid-term Study Guide (10/11/2011) I. Terms/Concepts North-South & East-West Relations o North-South: the socio-economic divide between rich nations mainly located in the Northern Hemisphere and the poor countries of the Southern Hemisphere Not exclusively geographic, as some developed nations reside in the South and some developing nations are located in the North The South and North have different agendas and priorities, and face different problems. *different conceptions of the role of media in socio-eco-political development o East-West: between the US and its allies on one side (the West) and the former Soviet Union and its allies (the East), primarily based on ideological differences During the Cold War – ideological confrontation between capitalism and communism First, Second & Third Worlds Cold war inventions to describe three blocks of nations o First World: US-led group of capitalist nations (formerly organized as NATO) o Second World: Soviet-led communist nations (formerly allied as the Warsaw Pact) o Third World: all the other countries that were outside the above two groups, noticeably the Non-Aligned Movement Imperialism vs. Colonialism o Colonialism: process of control through physical occupation and administrative policies and institutions; control of human and natural resource; extraction of raw materials and control over labor Mainly used to refer to the conquest and domination of non-European territories that spread from the 12 th -19 th century Post-colonialism refers to the intellectual debate over cultural/national identity in formerly colonized societies o Imperialism: can be an act or an attitude; process of deliberate ideological influence; support of leaders/administrations that advance political/economic agendas supplied by imperialists; economic initiatives developed that benefit imperial interests and elite stakeholders; infrastructures developed that help realize and articulate imperial interests; marked by expansion and uneven flows; subordination and dominion over local people/culture by a foreign power o Colonization involves formal state rule whereas imperialism exerts control via ideology, beliefs, values and expertise; imperialism can continue after “decolonization.” Colonialism: Military Colonialism, Christianity Colonialism, Mercantile Colonialism & Electronic o Military colonialism(BC – 1000 AD): the expansion of the Roman empire throughout most of what is today Europe during the Greco-Roman period o Christianity colonialism (1000 – 1600): militant Christianity of the crusades that sought to control territory from Europe to Middle East. Beginning 1095, 200 years of crusades led to the establishment of new European colonies in the Middle East. The territories were seized from Muslims as Western civilization became the dominant international force
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o Mercantile colonialism (1600 – 1950): Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Americas became objects of conquest by European powers that sought markets, raw materials, and
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