13-lec-204-10-Neuc-corr12-7-11

13-lec-204-10-Neuc-corr12-7-11 - Nuclear Physics 13-1...

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13-1 matter energy Nuclear Physics measure mass in energy equivalent of rest mass e. g. for electron m = 9.1 (10) -31 kg mc 2 = 9.1 (10) -31 kg [3 (10) 8 m/s ] 2 = 8.19 (10) -14 J or mc 2 = 8.19 (10) -14 J [1.602 (10) -19 J/eV = 0.511 MeV m 0.511 MeV
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13-1a Nuclear Physics main actors and notation object/particle charge mc 2 comments electron/beta-minus e - / - positron/beta-plus e + / + proton p + neutron n -particle = He nucleus neutrinos gamma-ray -e +e +e 0 +2e 0 0 anti-particle of electron 0.511 MeV 0.511 MeV 938.272 MeV 938.566 MeV 3728.402 MeV > 1 eV 0 involved in weak force photon E=h f
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I F e + e - I F e + e - 2 hf=2 m 0 c 2 E I =E F 2m 0 c 2 =2 hf pair creation pair annihilation matter energy E I =E F 13-1b f f f f
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13-2 Radioactivity
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13-3
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13-4 p+ H+ N+
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13-4a
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p-p 13-5 Nuclear size Nuclear size
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Coulomb potential (uniform sphere) Coulomb potential (pt. charge) n potential (strong force) p + -potential (strong + Coulomb force) n help lend stability – dilute repulsive Coulomb force r U(r) nucleons feel effective potential due to all other nucleons combined finite sphere of uniform charge density removes in Coulomb pot. square well-like potential (3-dimensional) nucleon – quantized standing matter waves (recall QM square well) nucleon – quantized energy levels 3-6
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n p + n have lower energy (no Coulomb repulsion) dilute Coulomb energy extra n lower energy = stabilize n and p+ obey Pauli Exclusion Principal n p + too many n, energy to high unstable decays to lower energy e.g. n p + +e - + n p + 13-7
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Z = protons N= neutrons Z=N extra n but not too many Locus of nuclear stability 13-8
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13-9 Nuclear Binding 2 4 He M 4 He < 2M H + 2M n M is in binding energy E binding = M c 2 E binding = [(2m H +2m n )- ] c 2 M 4 He
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13-9a A= # nucleons
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13-9b 700 million km ~Jupiter's orbit
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Relative Stopping Power Pb better
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13-10 Nuclear decay channels emission (e) decay - = e - emission + = e + emission (decay) emission
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Quantum tunneling through energy barrier V E particle Coulomb energy barrier 13-11 http://phet.colorado.edu/simulations/sims.php?sim=Alpha_Decay
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13-12 Particle decay and emission M + m init. final m M 0 = MV-mv momentum conservation or m V = v M (1a)* (1) 22 11 = MV + mv  energy (2) (1a) into (2) 1 m 1 = M( v) + mv 2 M 2  {} 2 1m = mv 1+ 2M 2 1 2 2 1 2 m mv MV = m mv mv    m = m   nuclear energy change energy of emitted particle Note: most of energy goes to KE of light (m) particle *(1a-student corr)
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13-12a Particle decay and emission M + m init.
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This note was uploaded on 04/03/2012 for the course PHY 1020 taught by Professor Kodera during the Spring '11 term at University of Florida.

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13-lec-204-10-Neuc-corr12-7-11 - Nuclear Physics 13-1...

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