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Finals Study Guide - 23:47 ANTHRO STUDY GUIDE FINAL...

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23:47 ANTHRO STUDY GUIDE – FINAL Anthropology The study of the human species and its immediate ancestors Evolution Belief that species arose from others through long and gradual process of transformation, descent with modification. Adaptive Strategies Means of making a living; productive system Economy A population system of production, distribution and consumption of resources. Holocene Started 12,000 years ago, continues til present, geologic time period characterized by warmer temperatures. Chiefdom A ranked society w/ two or three level settlement heirarchy Primary state States that arise on their own (through competition of chiefdoms) not through contact with other states State Sociopolitical organization based on central government socioeconomic stratification – a division of society into classes Empire A mature territorially large and expansive state, typically multi ethnic, more millitaristic with better developed beaurocracy.
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Logistic Mobility System in which resources are moved to people; Collecting Residential Mobility System in which people move to resources; Foraging Religion Belief and ritual concerned with supernatural beings, powers and forces. Animism Belief in souls or doubles. Totemism A religious belief that is frequently associated with shamanistic religious. Totem usually an animal or natural figure that spiritually represents a group of related people such as a clan. Family of orientation Nuclear family in which one is born and grows up. Family of procreation Nuclear family established when one marries and has children. Parallel Cousins Children on two brothers or two sisters. Cross cousins Children of a brother and a sister. Cultural Imperialism The rapid spread or advance of one culture at the expense of others. Modifies replaces or destroys usually because of differences in economic or political influence.
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CONCEPTS I) Reciprocity – 3 types A) General A.1) Exchange usually between family members with no expectation of return. Helping your mom carry in the groceries. B) Balanced B.1) Exchange between two where reparations are expected in the near future. Spotting friend money, to be repaid in the near future. C) Negative C.1) Exchanges between strangers, usually hostile, something for nothing. Buying a drink for a girl, who doesn’t talk to you. II) 5 Economic Systems A) Foraging (Hunter-gathering) A.1) Rely on natural environment for subsidence. A.2) Do not control plant or animal reproduction. B) Horticulture (Slash-and-burn, shift cultivation, swiddening, dry farming) B.1) Non industrial plant cultivation with fallowing. Use simple tools to grow crops C) Agriculture (Intensive Farming) C.1) Cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture does; using land intensively and continuously. Domesticated animals irrigation and terracing D) Pastoralism (Herding) D.1) Activities focus on domesticated animals such as camels cattle sheep goats and yak.
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