Chapter_31_Fungi

Chapter_31_Fungi - Patrick Patena AP Biology Period 5 Body...

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Body Structure Eukaryotes Heterotrophs ; extracellular digestion Acquire nutrients by absorption as decomposers (saprobes), parasites, or mutualistic symbionts Fungal bodies are constructed by tubular walls, hyphae , that surround the plasma membranes and cytoplasm The network of hyphae connections is the mycelium Dividing cross-walls, the septa , generally have pores that allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell hyphae to hyphae Some fungi are coenocytic , lacking cross-walls (septa) that divide hyphae into cells; coenocytes consist a uniform, continuous cytoplasmic mass with multitudes of nuclei Cells walls are made up of chitin , which is also found on insects Parasitic fungi usually form haustoria , which are hyphal tips that invade the tissues of the host and absorb nutrients Fungi focus their energy on adding hyphal length, contributing to a greater absorptive surface area; fungi digest foods outside their body by secreting powerful hydrolytic enzymes that decompose complex molecules into smaller organic compounds that they can absorb Fungal Reproduction Fungal spores are produced either sexually and/or asexually; spores are usually unicellular, but multicellular spores can also occur Spores are carried by wind or water, and germinate if they land in moist places Nuclei of fungal hyphae and spores of most species
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