Lecture Outline - 4-3-12

Lecture Outline - 4-3-12 - Lecture Outline MAP-UA 203 -...

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Lecture Outline – MAP-UA 203 - Energy and Environment April 3, 2012 HW due April 10, 11: Ch. 6: 6, 7, 9, 10, 12, 14-16 (calculate the pH in parts d-g of #14), 18, 20, 33, 36 Introduction: Today's lecture will begin our discussion of acid rain. While the problem of acid rain does not make for screaming headlines today, it does adversely affect plant and animal life, and causes corrosion of metals and erosion of monuments. In severe cases where acidic fogs have persisted in urban areas, there have been serious consequences to human health. The chapter begins by defining acids and bases chemically. The pH scale for quantifying acidity is then introduced. Sources of acid rain (production of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen by combustion of fuels) are discussed as well as the deleterious effects of acid rain, and what can be done to control the problem. Acid Rain Acid rain is rain having a pH < 5.3. (As we will see later on, carbon dioxide, which is normally present in the atmosphere, dissolves in rain, giving it an acidic pH even in the absence of other pollutants.) Acid rain leads to: fish kills corrosion of metal damage to stone and marble damage to vegetation We are going to look at the following topics: What is an acid? pH and molarity sources of acid rain effects of acid rain politics of acid rain Acids Acids are substances that release H + (hydrogen ions or protons) into solution. H + is a hydrogen atom that has lost its single electron. Because a hydrogen ion is just a hydrogen nucleus, which is very small , the charge on the hydrogen ion is very concentrated . It is thus very reactive, looking for electrons everywhere. In water solution, hydrogen ions attach themselves to water molecules (using one of the unused electron pairs on the oxygen). The result is the H 3 O + or hydronium ion . But most chemists still call it H + , the hydrogen ion . 1
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Acids (continued) Here's what happens when one puts hydrochloric acid, HCl, into water: HCl + H 2 O H 3 O + + Cl - The HCl donates a proton to the water. HCl is such a strong proton donor (acid) that essentially no HCl remains unreacted. Acids that are very effective proton donors are known as strong acids. Other strong acids are H 2 SO 4 , (sulfuric acid) and HNO 3 (nitric acid). Weak Acids
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Lecture Outline - 4-3-12 - Lecture Outline MAP-UA 203 -...

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