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PPPodcast5 - PPPodcast Week 5 Welcome to the PPPodcast for...

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PPPodcast: Week 5 Welcome to the PPPodcast for week 5! The Major Concept for this week is GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS or GMOs. Just what is a GMO? A genetically modified organism or GMO is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using enzymes and laboratory techniques that are generally known as recombinant DNA technology . This technology allows scientists to combine DNA molecules from different organisms into a single molecule in a test tube. Scientists use this technology to alter the properties of the resulting new organism, such as the proteins it produces or the phenotype it expresses. Animals, plants, and microbes that are GMOs have been developed and are being used in many applications around the world. There are three basic steps necessary to create a GMO. We think of them as the “ three I s.” First, a gene that controls a desirable characteristic, such as disease resistance, must be identified and located, or mapped , in the host genome. The gene can be in a related plant, an unrelated plant, or even a different type of organism. Second, the desired gene must be isolated from the donor host DNA using restriction enzymes. Restriction enzymes are bacterial enzymes that cut DNA at a specific nucleotide sequences. By selecting appropriate restriction enzymes, the desired gene can be cut from the donor host DNA.
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