Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual-Spring 2008

Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual-Spring 2008 - Laboratory Manual...

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Unformatted text preview: Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics CWR 3201L Fluid Mechanics Laboratory Spring 2008 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Florida International University Miami, FL 33199 2 Florida International University Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Laboratory Manual of Fluid Mechanics Experiment 1. Measurement of Density INTRODUCTION Faced with the question, “What is a fluid?” you might have difficulty in providing an answer. It is true that nearly everyone accepts all liquids as being fluids, and many add to this gases, but this does not explain how one decides whether a given substance is f1ui or solid. A fluid is any substance which, when acted upon by a shear force, however small, cause a continuous or unlimited deformation, but at a rate proportional to the applied force. Substances which agree with this definition are termed Newtonian fluids and all liquids and gases behave very closely to the Newtonian fluid. DENSITY The density of any substance is defined as the mass per unit volume and is denoted by “ ρ .” 3 M mass by the occupied volume substance of mass = L = ∴ ρ since any volume is proportional to a linear dimension cubed. It should be noted that the density of a liquid remains sensibly constant because the volume occupied by a given mass of liquid is almost invariable. But in the case of a gas the density will vary as the volume occupied by a given mass of gas varies. From this it may be deduced that a liquid may be taken as virtually incompressible while, of course, gases are compressible. SPECIFIC WEIGHT The specific weight of any substance is defined as the weight per unit volume and is denoted by “ γ .” weight by the occupied volume substance of weight = γ .................................................................. 1.1 Now, since any weight is due to the action of the gravitational acceleration on the mass, then 3 2 T ML on accelerati nal gravitatio times mass substance of Weight = = hence 2 2 2 3 T L M T L L M = ⋅ = γ .............................................................................................. 1.2 now g T L and L M 2 3 = = ρ g ρ γ = ............................................................................................................... 1.3 SPECIFIC GRAVITY OR RELATIVE DENSITY The specific gravity or relative density of a substance is defined as the mass of a given volume of a substance divided by the mass of the same volume of water and is denoted by “d.” water of volume equal an of mass substance of me given volu a of mass d = ∴ If V is the volume of the substance and of the water p is the density of the substance and p is the density of the water....
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Fluid Mechanics Lab Manual-Spring 2008 - Laboratory Manual...

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