Lecture 2 Science

Lecture 2 Science - 1/25/11- I/O PSYC What is science?...

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1/25/11- I/O PSYC What is science? Goals of Science Description o Accurate portrayal of phenomenon Explanation o Better understand phenomenon Prediction o Anticipate occurrence of events Control o Able to manipulate variables to affect behavior Assumptions of Science Empiricism o Best way to understand behavior is to generate theory and test with data Determinism o Behavior is orderly and systematic Discoverability o It is possible to discover the orderliness Theories Set of interrelated concepts and propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena o Purpose: to describe, explain, and predict o So, theories further the goals of science o Some say that the primary objective of science is theory building What makes a good theory? o Parsimony (keeping it simple, the easiest way to get to a certain point) o Precision o Testability o Usefulness o Generativity Chicken or Egg? Data or Theory? Induction- approach to science that consist of working data to theory Deduction- start with theory and then collect data Good scientists use both approaches o The Cyclical Inductive-Deductive Model of Research Research Terminology and Basics- Overview Causal inference – want to conduct experiments so that we can infer causality from studies Key terms o Independent and dependent variables o Internal and external validity
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o Control IVs and DVs IV- anything that is systematically manipulated by the researcher o Predictor, precursor, antecedent DV- variable of interest that we design our studies to assess o Criteria, outcomes, consequences Extraneous variables- any other variable that can contaminate results Internal and External Validity Internal- extent to which we can draw causal inferences about variables o Are results due to the IV? o Control, control, control External- extent to which results obtained generalized to/across other ppl, settings, and times o Student samples to employees? Tradeoff between internal and external validity is important to consider Control Must ensure that we can make a causal inference about our IV affecting our DV Ways to control o Hold extraneous variables constant o Systematically manipulate different levels of extraneous variables – part of design o
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Lecture 2 Science - 1/25/11- I/O PSYC What is science?...

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