Consumer Behavior – Topic 2
Economic Models: Consumer Behavior Models; Need Recognition, Search, Pre-purchase
Alternative Evaluation, Purchase, Consumption, Outcomes
You personal involvement in the product, service or candidate will impact how you buy,
order or vote.
We speak of low and high involvement. This is a function of just how
much searching you are willing to do.
Low involvement products would include such
things as sugar or salt vs. high involvement such as cars or computers.
And the price of
the item does not indicate the level of involvement by the consumer.
inexpensive items become high involvement (i.e., clothes, gifts).
Factors that may lead to why people do not buy
marketing factors: Let me remind you of the 4-Ps of marketing – the marketing
factors: product, price, promotion, and place.
Perhaps the product is poorly
priced and thus is too high for the product category or the product is just not a
cultural factors: a classic study was done immediately following World War II for
Nescafe, an instant coffee.
During the war when many products were rationed,
such as coffee, Nescafe was a very popular product.
However when the war
ended, the product lost much share in the market.
A taste test revealed that the
flavor was competitive with regular coffee.
Why then did people consider instant
coffee as inferior?
Haire devised a study in which two identical shopping lists
were presented to shoppers with only one difference – One of the lists had regular
coffee while the other had instant Nescafe.
Then the subjects were asked to
describe the shopper based on the list.
The shopper whose list included Nescafe
was described as a “lazy housekeeper”.
Thus Haire determined that this was a
cultural problem and his advice to the manufacturer was to stress taste.
public has not problem with instant (in fact quick preparation is considered a
what will other people think – what will the neighbors think – this
has to do with social risks.
Clothes fall into this factor.
Thus in marketing certain
products associated with social risks, it is helpful to have someone famous wear
The classic example is Gloria Vanderbilt whose jeans set off a revolution.
Prior to G. Vanderbilt, jeans were considered work clothes and prohibited from
most restaurants, schools, theaters etc.
Vanderbilt, whose ancestor was indeed the
robber baron of the same name, was a minor model and clothing designer.
designed a skin right woman’s jean and marketed them as evening, date, dress-up
This was in the early 1970s.
Today jeans are accepted pretty much
anywhere and the price point range from Wrangler through the top designers.