Energy Losses in Bends

# Energy Losses in Bends - Updated Energy Losses in Bends...

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Updated 11/26/08 Energy Losses in Bends Introduction Energy losses in pipe flows are the result of friction between the fluid and the pipe walls and internal friction between fluid particles. Minor (secondary) head losses occur at any location in a pipe system where streamlines are not straight, such as at pipe junctions, bends, valves, contractions, expansions, and reservoir inlets and outlets. In this experiment, you will measure minor head losses through a pipe section that has several bends, transitions, and fittings as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Schematic drawing of the energy-loss apparatus. Objective The objectives of this lab are to measure head losses through bends, transitions, and fittings, and to use these measurements to estimate the loss coefficients for each transition or fitting. Theory The energy balance between two points in a pipe can be described by the Bernoulli equation, given by L h g V z p g V z p + + + = + + 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 γ , (1) where p i is static pressure (in Pa) at point i , is specific weight of the fluid (in N/m 3 ), z i is the elevation (in meters) of point i , V i is the fluid velocity (in m/s) at point i , g is the gravitational constant (in m/s 2 ), and h L is head loss (in meters). The term p i / is referred 1

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