2-f111140 - Chemistry Lecture Chapter 6 Chemical Bonding...

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Chemistry Lecture Chapter 6- Chemical Bonding Section 6.1: Introduction to Chemical Bonding- 1- 2 days Bell work: Define chemical bond, ionic bond, covalent bond, nonpolar covalent bond, and polar covalent bond. Types of Chemical Bonding- Ionic or Covalent? Atoms seldom exist as independent particles in nature. Why? Because when they bond with each other, atoms are more stable and have a lower potential energy. When atoms bond their valence electrons are redistribute in ways that make the atoms more stable. When they do they form chemical bonds. Chemical bonds = a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together. The first type of bond that we will look at is the ionic bond. Ionic bond = chemical bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions. See figure 6-1. Covalent bonding results from the sharing of electron pairs between two atoms. This is the second type of chemical bond. Atoms with covalent bonds form independent molecules. Remember that electronegativity is the measure of an atom’s ability to attract electrons . The degree to which bonding between atoms of two elements is ionic or covalent can be estimated by calculating the difference between the element’s electronegativities. 1
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Bonding between atoms with an electronegativity difference of 1.7 or less has a covalent bond . Bonds between two atoms of the same element are also covalent because they have no electronegativity. There are two kinds of covalent bonds. The first is a nonpolar covalent bond = a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are share equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of electrical charge. Their electronegativities are between 0-.3 . A polar covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons. That means that electrons tend to spend more time closer to one element in the compound than the other. The electronegativity is going to be between .3-1.7 . Recognize that electronegativity difference is only a general guide for determining bonding type. There are some exceptions. See figure 6-2 for the general rule. Section Review, pg. 163, #1-4. Study Guide 6.1 2
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Section 6.2- Covalent Bonding and Molecular Compounds- 2 days. Bell work- Define molecule and molecular formula. 2 nd day: Define bond length, bond energy Introduction 1. Molecule = a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds. 2. Molecular compound = a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules. 3. Chemical formula = the relative numbers of atoms of each kind of a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts.
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