2-ndrepph - Philippines Curriculum development Bella O....

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112 INTRODUCTION (GXFDWLRQDO± legislation and SROLF\ The education sector (along with other government agen- cies) has the task of contributing to the achievement of na- tional development goals espoused in the country’s development plan. The general purpose and goals of edu- cation in the Philippines have been cited in the national constitution. Section 3(2), Article XIV of the Constitution states that: All educational institutions shall inculcate patriotism and nationalism, foster love of humanity, respect for human rights, appreciation of the role of national heroes in the historical development of the country, teach the rights and duties of citizenship, strengthen ethical and spiritual val- ues, develop moral character and personal discipline, en- courage critical and creative thinking, broaden scientific and technological knowledge and promote vocational ef- ficiency. These goals have been translated into educational policies and further elaborated as the basic (elementary and sec- ondary) education framework. Elementary and secondary education The 1982 Education Act identifies the aims of both ele- mentary and secondary education. For elementary educa- tion, the aims are: (a) to provide the knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes and values essential to person- al development and necessary for living in and contribut- ing to a developing and changing social milieu; (b) to provide learning experiences which increase the child’s awareness of and responsiveness to the changes in and just demands of society and to prepare him/her for construc- tive and effective involvement; (c) to promote and inten- sify the child’s knowledge of, identification with, and love for the nation and the people to which he/she belongs; and (d) to promote work experiences which develop the child’s orientation to the world of work and creativity and prepare him/her to engage in honest and gainful work. The regional level basic education aims and objectives reflect those at the national level, but are modified to suit local conditions and concerns. For secondary education the aims are: (a) the provision of general education that was started at the elementary level; and (b) the preparation of students for college and/or the world of work. Estimated population (1995) Public expenditure on education as percentage of Gross National Product (1995) Duration of compulsory education (years) 67,800,000 2.2 6 Primary or basic education Pupils enrolled (1995) Teachers (1995) Pupil/teacher ratio Gross enrolment ratio (1995) —Total —Male —Female Net enrolment ratio (1995) —Total —Male —Female Estimated percentage of repeaters (1992) 1 Estimated percentage of drop-outs (1995) School-age population out of school (1995) 11,541,570 35 :1 107 108 107 90 89 91 2 30 1,000,000 Secondary education Students enrolled (1995) Gross enrolment ratio (1995) —Total —Male —Female 4,809,863 79 Third-level enrolment ratio (1995) 29.7 Estimated adult literacy rate (1995)
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2-ndrepph - Philippines Curriculum development Bella O....

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