World Religions - Study Guide Exam 1 (defined)

World Religions - Study Guide Exam 1 (defined) - World...

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World Religions Exam 1 Study Guide H INDUISM 1. Indo-Europeans - Indo-Europeans OR Indo-Aryans came as early as 6000 BCE. The term actually comes from the family of languages from which Sanskrit comes from. Western scholars believe that there are some similarities between Indian and European languages that proves that migration is what made this happen. According to this theory, they migrated from Central Asia between 2000 - 1500 BCE to Ireland, Scandinavia or headed sough to where Iran was. The other theory says that Aryans were from what is now Turkey and that migration began as early as 6000 BCE. There are other theories, but none can be confirmed, and the only thing that’s known is their love for poetry, and their writings on philosophy and rituals that were passed down orally by use of mnemonic devices. They composed the Vedas. 2. The Vedas - Sanskrit for “knowledge” also known as shruti (‘that which was heard’) Composed between time period of 1750 - 600 BCE. There are four components: Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva. Each of these have four sections: hymns (Earliest), directions fr the performance of sacred rituals, “compositions of the forest” and philosophical works called the upanishads . 3. Deities (Vishnu, Shiva, Kali) - Vishnu comes to earth in various forms to rid the world of evil and establish dharma or righteousness. He has ten cycles of reincarnation and they say he’s currently on his ninth. Seventh they say is Rama, and some say the 9th was the Buddha. When all cycles are completed the world will end. Shiva’s an exuberant dancer. Devi was the wife of Shiva, but she can appear as the warrior goddess Durga or Kali, a disfigured goddess. She is always called “mother”. There is also Ganesha, a remover of obstacles and the son of Shiva and Devi. 4. The Upanishads - Composed in the 6th and 7th centuries BCE which was because it was a time of intellectual questioning and an enlightened period. The upanishads were created to reformulate old hymns and practices that seemed out of date and that people were starting to disagree with. 5. Brahman and Atman - Atman is the human soul. And the supreme being is “Brahman”. Brahman is entering a new state of consciousness and is associated with truth, knowledge, infinity, consciousness and bliss according to the Upanishads . In other sources, it is described as the inner controller of the human soul and the frame that the universe is woven upon. 6. Karma - “action” more specifically ritual action. The upanishads brought this theme in. This refers to a system of rewards and punishments that come with the actions you do. Karma also refers to a continuous lifecycle of reincarnation, because for some people it takes more than one lifetime to work out and finally achieve moksha which is liberation. To achieve this, one must acquire wisdom, and then they will achieve liberation and immortality.
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