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Unformatted text preview: v3 A G U I D E T O T H E B U S I N E S S A N A LY S I S B O DY O F K N O W L ED GE ® BABOK ® v3 A GUIDE TO THE BUSINESS ANALYSIS BODY OF KNOWLEDGE® International Institute of Business Analysis, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ©2005, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2015 International Institute of Business Analysis. All rights reserved. Version 1.0 and 1.4 published 2005. Version 1.6 Draft published 2006. Version 1.6 Final published 2008. Version 2.0 published 2009. Version 3.0 published 2015. ISBN-13: 97978-1-927584-03-3 Permission is granted to reproduce this document for your own personal, professional, or educational use. If you have purchased a license to use this document from IIBA®, you may transfer ownership to a third party. IIBA® members may not transfer ownership of their complimentary copy. IIBA®, the IIBA® logo, BABOK® and Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® are registered trademarks owned by International Institute of Business Analysis. CBAP® is a registered certification mark owned by International Institute of Business Analysis. Certified Business Analysis Professional, EEP and the EEP logo are trademarks owned by International Institute of Business Analysis. Archimate® is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the US and other countries. Business Model Canvas is copyrighted by BusinessModelGeneration.com and released under Creative Commons license. CMMI® is a registered trademark of Carnegie Mellon University. COBIT® is a trademark of the Information Systems Audit and Control Association and the IT Governance Institute. Mind Map® is a registered trademark of the Buzan Organization. Scaled Agile Framework® and SAFe™ are trademarks of Scaled Agile, Inc. TOGAF® is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the US and other countries. Unified Modelling Language™ and UML® are trademarks of the Object Management Group. Zachman Framework for Enterprise Architecture is a trademark of the Zachman Institute for Framework Advancement. No challenge to the status or ownership of these or any other trademarked terms contained herein is intended by the International Institute of Business Analysis. Any inquiries regarding this publication, requests for usage rights for the material included herein, or corrections should be sent by email to [email protected] Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. This document is provided to the business analysis community for educational purposes. IIBA® does not warrant that it is suitable for any other purpose and makes no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assumes no responsibility for errors or omissions. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information contained herein. Table of Contents 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Purpose of the BABOK® Guide 1 What is Business Analysis? 2 Who is a Business Analyst? 2 Structure of the BABOK® Guide 3 Chapter 2: Business Analysis Key Concepts 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 The Business Analysis Core Concept Model™ 12 Key Terms 14 Requirements Classification Schema 16 Stakeholders 16 Requirements and Designs 19 Chapter 3: Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Plan Business Analysis Approach 24 Plan Stakeholder Engagement 31 Plan Business Analysis Governance 37 Plan Business Analysis Information Management 42 Identify Business Analysis Performance Improvements 47 i Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. Chapter 1: Introduction Table of Contents Chapter 4: Elicitation and Collaboration 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Prepare for Elicitation 56 Conduct Elicitation 61 Confirm Elicitation Results 65 Communicate Business Analysis Information 67 Manage Stakeholder Collaboration 71 Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. Chapter 5: Requirements Life Cycle Management 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 Trace Requirements 79 Maintain Requirements 83 Prioritize Requirements 86 Assess Requirements Changes 91 Approve Requirements 95 Chapter 6: Strategy Analysis 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Analyze Current State 103 Define Future State 110 Assess Risks 120 Define Change Strategy 124 Chapter 7: Requirements Analysis and Design Definition 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 Specify and Model Requirements 136 Verify Requirements 141 Validate Requirements 144 Define Requirements Architecture 148 Define Design Options 152 Analyze Potential Value and Recommend Solution 157 Chapter 8: Solution Evaluation 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Measure Solution Performance 166 Analyze Performance Measures 170 Assess Solution Limitations 173 Assess Enterprise Limitations 177 Recommend Actions to Increase Solution Value 182 Chapter 9: Underlying Competencies 9.1 Analytical Thinking and Problem Solving 188 ii Table of Contents 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 Behavioural Characteristics 194 Business Knowledge 199 Communication Skills 203 Interaction Skills 207 Tools and Technology 211 Chapter 10: Techniques Acceptance and Evaluation Criteria 217 Backlog Management 220 Balanced Scorecard 223 Benchmarking and Market Analysis 226 Brainstorming 227 Business Capability Analysis 230 Business Cases 234 Business Model Canvas 236 Business Rules Analysis 240 Collaborative Games 243 Concept Modelling 245 Data Dictionary 247 Data Flow Diagrams 250 Data Mining 253 Data Modelling 256 Decision Analysis 261 Decision Modelling 265 Document Analysis 269 Estimation 271 Financial Analysis 274 Focus Groups 279 Functional Decomposition 283 Glossary 286 Interface Analysis 287 Interviews 290 Item Tracking 294 Lessons Learned 296 Metrics and Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) 297 Mind Mapping 299 Non-Functional Requirements Analysis 302 Observation 305 Organizational Modelling 308 iii Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 10.10 10.11 10.12 10.13 10.14 10.15 10.16 10.17 10.18 10.19 10.20 10.21 10.22 10.23 10.24 10.25 10.26 10.27 10.28 10.29 10.30 10.31 10.32 Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. Table of Contents 10.33 10.34 10.35 10.36 10.37 10.38 10.39 10.40 10.41 10.42 10.43 10.44 10.45 10.46 10.47 10.48 10.49 10.50 Prioritization 311 Process Analysis 314 Process Modelling 318 Prototyping 323 Reviews 326 Risk Analysis and Management 329 Roles and Permissions Matrix 333 Root Cause Analysis 335 Scope Modelling 338 Sequence Diagrams 341 Stakeholder List, Map, or Personas 344 State Modelling 348 Survey or Questionnaire 350 SWOT Analysis 353 Use Cases and Scenarios 356 User Stories 359 Vendor Assessment 361 Workshops 363 Chapter 11: Perspectives 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 The Agile Perspective 368 The Business Intelligence Perspective 381 The Information Technology Perspective 394 The Business Architecture Perspective 408 The Business Process Management Perspective 424 Appendix A: Glossary 441 Appendix B: Techniques to Task Mapping 457 Appendix C: Contributors 473 Appendix D: Summary of Changes from BABOK® Guide v 2.0 483 iv Preface IIBA® was founded in Toronto, Canada in October of 2003 to support the business analysis community by: • creating and developing awareness and recognition of the value and contribution of the business analyst, • defining the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK®), • providing a forum for knowledge sharing and contribution to the business analysis profession, and The Body of Knowledge Committee was formed in October of 2004 to define and draft a global standard for the practice of business analysis. In January of 2005, IIBA released version 1.0 of A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) for feedback and comment. That version included an outline of the proposed content and some key definitions. Version 1.4 was released in October of 2005, with draft content in some knowledge areas. Version 1.6, which included detailed information regarding most of the knowledge areas, was published in draft form in June of 2006 and updated to incorporate errata in October of 2008. The Body of Knowledge Committee developed version 2.0 of A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) with the guidance of expert writing teams, and feedback garnered from expert, practitioner, and public reviews. Version 2.0 introduced such concepts as the Requirements Classification Schema and the Input/Output models. Version 2.0 was published in 2009 and became the globally recognized standard for the practice of business analysis. Following the publication of version 2.0, IIBA sought out a number of recognized experts in business analysis and related fields and solicited their feedback on the content of that edition. The Body of Knowledge Committee used these comments to plan the vision and scope of this revision. The Body of Knowledge Committee worked with teams of expert writers to revise and update the content. The revised draft of A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) was reviewed by teams of both expert and practitioner reviewers. The Body of Knowledge Committee used the feedback provided to further enhance and refine the text and then made the content available to the business analysis community for review in 2014. The thousands of items of feedback from this public review were used to further revise the text to form A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) version 3.0. The goal of this revision was to: • incorporate new concepts and practices in use since the last revision, • address the broadening and evolving scope of the profession, • incorporate lessons learned from practitioners who have worked with the current version, • improve the readability and usability of the guide, • improve the consistency and quality of text and illustrations, and • improve consistency with other generally accepted standards relating to the practice of business analysis. v Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. • publicly recognizing and certifying qualified practitioners through an internationally acknowledged certification program. The major changes in this release include: • the inclusion of the Business Analysis Core Concept Model™ (BACCM™), • the expanded scope of the role of business analysis in creating better business outcomes, • the inclusion of Perspectives which describe specialized ways in which business analysis professionals provide unique value to the enterprise, • new and expanded Underlying Competencies to better reflect the diverse skill sets of the business analyst, and • new techniques that have emerged in the practice of business analysis. Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. This publication supersedes A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) version 2.0. The BABOK® Guide contains a description of generally accepted practices in the field of business analysis. The content included in this release has been verified through reviews by practitioners, surveys of the business analysis community, and consultations with recognized experts in the field. The data available to IIBA demonstrates that the tasks and techniques described in this publication are in use by a majority of business analysis practitioners. As a result, we can have confidence that the tasks and techniques described in the BABOK® Guide should be applicable in most contexts where business analysis is performed, most of the time. The BABOK® Guide should not be construed to mandate that the practices described in this publication should be followed under all circumstances. Any set of practices must be tailored to the specific conditions under which business analysis is being performed. In addition, practices which are not generally accepted by the business analysis community at the time of publication may be equally effective, or more effective, than the practices described in the BABOK® Guide. As such practices become generally accepted, and as data is collected to verify their effectiveness, they will be incorporated into future editions of this publication. IIBA encourages all practitioners of business analysis to be open to new approaches and new ideas, and wishes to encourage innovation in the practice of business analysis. IIBA would like to extend its thanks and the thanks of the business analysis community to all those who volunteered their time and effort to the development of this revision, as well as those who provided informal feedback to us in other ways. vi 1 Introduction 1.1 Purpose of the BABOK® Guide The primary purpose of the BABOK® Guide is to define the profession of business analysis and provide a set of commonly accepted practices. It helps practitioners discuss and define the skills necessary to effectively perform business analysis work. The BABOK® Guide also helps people who work with and employ business analysts to understand the skills and knowledge they should expect from a skilled practitioner. Business analysis is a broad profession in which business analysts might perform work for many different types of initiatives across an enterprise. Practitioners may employ different competencies, knowledge, skills, terminology, and attitudes that they use when performing business analysis tasks. The BABOK® Guide is a common framework for all perspectives, describing business analysis tasks that are performed to properly analyze a change or evaluate the necessity for a change. Tasks may vary in form, order, or importance for individual business analysts or for various initiatives. The six knowledge areas of the BABOK® Guide (Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring, Elicitation and Collaboration, Requirements Life Cycle Management, Strategy Analysis, Requirements Analysis and Design Definition (RADD), and 1 Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) is the globally recognized standard for the practice of business analysis. The BABOK® Guide describes business analysis knowledge areas, tasks, underlying competencies, techniques and perspectives on how to approach business analysis. What is Business Analysis? Introduction Solution Evaluation) describe the practice of business analysis as it is applied within the boundaries of a project or throughout enterprise evolution and continuous improvement. The following image shows how three of the knowledge areas support the delivery of business value before, during, and after the life cycle of a project. Figure 1.1.1: Business Analysis Beyond Projects Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. Project Pre-Project Project Post-Project Rationale Delivery Benefits Strategy Analysis RADD Solution Evaluation 1.2 What is Business Analysis? Business analysis is the practice of enabling change in an enterprise by defining needs and recommending solutions that deliver value to stakeholders. Business analysis enables an enterprise to articulate needs and the rationale for change, and to design and describe solutions that can deliver value. Business analysis is performed on a variety of initiatives within an enterprise. Initiatives may be strategic, tactical, or operational. Business analysis may be performed within the boundaries of a project or throughout enterprise evolution and continuous improvement. It can be used to understand the current state, to define the future state, and to determine the activities required to move from the current to the future state. Business analysis can be performed from a diverse array of perspectives. The BABOK® Guide describes several of these perspectives: agile, business intelligence, information technology, business architecture, and business process management. A perspective can be thought of as a lens through which the business analysis practitioner views their work activities based on the current context. One or many perspectives may apply to an initiative, and the perspectives outlined in the BABOK® Guide do not represent all the contexts for business analysis or the complete set of business analysis disciplines. 1.3 Who is a Business Analyst? A business analyst is any person who performs business analysis tasks described in the BABOK® Guide, no matter their job title or organizational role. Business analysts are responsible for discovering, synthesizing, and analyzing information 2 Structure of the BABOK® Guide Introduction from a variety of sources within an enterprise, including tools, processes, documentation, and stakeholders. The business analyst is responsible for eliciting the actual needs of stakeholders—which frequently involves investigating and clarifying their expressed desires—in order to determine underlying issues and causes. Business analysts play a role in aligning the designed and delivered solutions with the needs of stakeholders. The activities that business analysts perform include: • understanding enterprise problems and goals, • analyzing needs and solutions, • devising strategies, • driving change, and Other common job titles for people who perform business analysis include: • business architect, • business systems analyst, • data analyst, • enterprise analyst, • management consultant, • process analyst, • product manager, • product owner, • requirements engineer, and • systems analyst. 1.4 Structure of the BABOK® Guide The core content of the BABOK® Guide is composed of business analysis tasks organized into knowledge areas. Knowledge areas are a collection of logically (but not sequentially) related tasks. These tasks describe specific activities that accomplish the purpose of their associated knowledge area. The Business Analysis Key Concepts, Underlying Competencies, Techniques, and Perspectives sections form the extended content in the BABOK® Guide that helps guide business analysts to better perform business analysis tasks. • Business Analysis Key Concepts: define the key terms needed to understand all other content, concepts, and ideas within the BABOK® Guide. • Underlying Competencies: provide a description of the behaviours, characteristics, knowledge, and personal qualities that support the effective practice of business analysis. 3 Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. • facilitating stakeholder collaboration. Structure of the BABOK® Guide Introduction • Techniques: provide a means to perform business analysis tasks. The techniques described in the BABOK® Guide are intended to cover the most common and widespread techniques practiced within the business analysis community. • Perspectives: describe various views of business analysis. Perspectives help business analysts working from various points of view to better perform business analysis tasks, given the context of the initiative. 1.4.1 Key Concepts The Business Analysis Key Concepts chapter provides a basic understanding of the central ideas necessary for understanding the BABOK® Guide. Complimentary IIBA® Member Copy. Not for Distribution or Resale. This chapter consists of: • Business Analysis Core Concept Model™ (BACCM™) • Key Terms • Requirements Classification Schema • Stakeholders • Requirements and Design 1.4.2 Knowledge Areas Knowledge areas represent areas of specific business analysis expertise that encompass several tasks. The six knowledge areas are: Each knowledge area includes a visual representation of its inputs and outputs. • Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring: describes the tasks that business analysts perform to organize and coordinate the efforts of business analysts and stakeholders. These tasks produce outputs that are used as key inputs and guidelines for the other tasks throughout the BABOK® Guide. • Elicitation and Collaboration: describes the tasks that business analysts perform to prepare for and conduct elicitation activities and confirm the results obtained. It also describes the communication with stakeholders once the business analysis information is assembled and the ongoing collaboration with them throughout the business analysis activities...
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