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chapter7 - Metabolism Transformations and Interactions...

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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Metabolism:  Metabolism:  Transformations and  Transformations and  Interactions Interactions Chapter 7
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Introduction Introduction Energy Heat Mechanical Electrical Chemical Stored in food and body Metabolism Release of energy, water, and carbon dioxide
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemical Reactions in the  Chemical Reactions in the  Body Body Energy metabolism How body obtains & uses energy from food Cell type Liver cells Anabolism Requires energy Catabolism Releases energy
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition A Typical Cell A Typical Cell
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemical Reactions in the  Chemical Reactions in the  Body Body
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemical Reactions in the  Chemical Reactions in the  Body Body Transfer of energy in reactions – ATP Released during breakdown of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids Form of phosphate groups Negative charge – vulnerable to hydrolysis Provides energy for all cell activities Coupled reactions Efficiency Heat loss
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Capture and Release of  Capture and Release of  Energy by ATP Energy by ATP
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemical Reactions in the  Chemical Reactions in the  Body Body Enzymes Facilitators of metabolic reactions Coenzymes Organic Associate with enzymes Without coenzyme, an enzyme cannot function
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Breaking Down Nutrients for  Breaking Down Nutrients for  Energy Energy Digestion Carbohydrates – glucose (& other monosaccharides) Fats (triglycerides) – glycerol and fatty acids Proteins – amino acids Molecules of glucose, glycerol, amino acids, and fatty acids Catabolism Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Breaking Down Nutrients for  Breaking Down Nutrients for  Energy Energy Two new compounds Pyruvate 3-carbon structure Can be used to make glucose Acetyl CoA 2-carbon structure Cannot be used to make glucose TCA cycle and electron transport chain
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Breaking Down Nutrients for  Breaking Down Nutrients for  Energy Energy
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Breaking Down Nutrients for  Breaking Down Nutrients for  Energy – Glucose  Energy – Glucose  Glucose-to-pyruvate Glycolysis 2 pyruvate molecules Hydrogen atoms carried to electron transport chain Pyruvate can be converted back to glucose Liver cells and kidneys (to some extent)
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