chapter7 - Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12...

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Unformatted text preview: Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Metabolism: Metabolism: Transformations and Transformations and Interactions Interactions Chapter 7 Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Introduction Introduction Energy Heat Mechanical Electrical Chemical Stored in food and body Metabolism Release of energy, water, and carbon dioxide Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemical Reactions in the Chemical Reactions in the Body Body Energy metabolism How body obtains & uses energy from food Cell type Liver cells Anabolism Requires energy Catabolism Releases energy Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition A Typical Cell A Typical Cell Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemical Reactions in the Chemical Reactions in the Body Body Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemical Reactions in the Chemical Reactions in the Body Body Transfer of energy in reactions ATP Released during breakdown of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids Form of phosphate groups Negative charge vulnerable to hydrolysis Provides energy for all cell activities Coupled reactions Efficiency Heat loss Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Capture and Release of Capture and Release of Energy by ATP Energy by ATP Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Chemical Reactions in the Chemical Reactions in the Body Body Enzymes Facilitators of metabolic reactions Coenzymes Organic Associate with enzymes Without coenzyme, an enzyme cannot function Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Breaking Down Nutrients for Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy Energy Digestion Carbohydrates glucose (& other monosaccharides) Fats (triglycerides) glycerol and fatty acids Proteins amino acids Molecules of glucose, glycerol, amino acids, and fatty acids Catabolism Carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Breaking Down Nutrients for Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy Energy Two new compounds Pyruvate 3-carbon structure Can be used to make glucose Acetyl CoA 2-carbon structure Cannot be used to make glucose TCA cycle and electron transport chain Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Breaking Down Nutrients for Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy Energy Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Breaking Down Nutrients for Breaking Down Nutrients for Energy Glucose Energy Glucose Glucose-to-pyruvate Glycolysis 2 pyruvate molecules Hydrogen atoms carried to electron transport chain Pyruvate can be converted back to glucose Liver cells and kidneys (to some extent) Whitney...
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2012 for the course BIOL 202 taught by Professor Buckley during the Spring '12 term at University of Massachusetts Boston.

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chapter7 - Whitney & Rolfes Understanding Nutrition, 12...

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