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chapter8 - Energy Balance and Body Composition Chapter 8...

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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Energy Balance and Body  Energy Balance and Body  Composition Composition Chapter 8
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Energy Balance Energy Balance Excess energy is stored as fat Fat is used for energy between meals Energy balance: energy in = energy out A shift in balance causes weight changes Not simply fat changes 1 pound of fat = 3500 kcalories
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Energy In: Food Composition Energy In: Food Composition Direct measure of food’s energy value Bomb calorimeter Indirect measure of energy released Oxygen consumed kCalorie calculations
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Energy In: Food Composition Energy In: Food Composition Hunger Physiological response to nerve signals and chemical messengers Hypothalamus Influences Satiation – stop eating Satiety – not to start eating again
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Energy In: Food Composition Energy In: Food Composition
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Energy In: Food Composition Energy In: Food Composition Overriding hunger and satiety Stress eating External cues Time of day, availability, sight, taste of food Environmental influences Examples Disordered eating
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Energy In: Food Composition Energy In: Food Composition Sustaining satiation and satiety Nutrient composition Protein is most satiating Low-energy density foods are more satiating High-fiber foods are more satiating High-fat foods – strong satiety signals
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Energy In: Food Composition Energy In: Food Composition The Hypothalamus Control center for eating Integrates messages Energy intake, expenditure, storage Gastrointestinal hormones
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Energy Out  Energy Out  Thermogenesis Basal metabolism Physical activity Food consumption Adaptation
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Components of Energy  Components of Energy  Expenditure – Basal Metabolism Expenditure – Basal Metabolism About two-thirds of energy expended in a day Metabolic activities All basic processes of life Basal metabolic rate (BMR) Variations Weight Lean tissue Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Components of Energy  Components of Energy  Expenditure – Basal Metabolism Expenditure – Basal Metabolism
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Whitney & Rolfes – Understanding Nutrition, 12 th Edition Components of Energy  Components of Energy  Expenditure – Physical Activity Expenditure – Physical Activity
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