Class 13 Anticoagulants - Drugs That Affect Blood...

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    Drugs That Affect Blood Coagulation
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Anticoagulants Prevent formation of new clots and extension  of clots already present Do no dissolve clots Heparin and warfarin are commonly used Danaparoid and lepirudin are newer agents Used to prevent or manage thrombophlebitis,  Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary  emboli (PE) Main adverse effect is bleeding
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Heparin Heparin combines with antithrombin III to  inactivate clotting factors IX, X, XI, and XII Inhibits conversion of prothrombin to thrombin Inactivates thrombin, preventing conversion  of fibrinogen to fibrin Inhibits factor XIII, V and VIII and platelet  aggregation
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Heparin Does not cross placental barrier Not secreted in breast milk Drug of choice in pregnancy/lactation Low doses are used prophylactically for  many (not all) surgical procedures
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Heparin SC or IV Administration SC administration method Monitoring (pTT) 1.5 to 2.5 x control  45-70 seconds Nursing Care of patient receiving Heparin Patient Teaching Diet-foods to avoid Side and Adverse Effects
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How to give Heparin Annersten M .,  Willman A Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing   (WORLDVIEWS EVID BASED NURS),  2005 3rd Quarter; 2(3): 122-30 (45 ref) several studies indicate that the amount  of  subcutaneous  fat and appropriate  needle length are of high importance for  the drug to reach the target tissue  
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Heparin Administration Don't inject heparin within 2 inches (5 cm) of the  umbilicus, to avoid the large umbilical veins.  Don't inject into a muscle, which could result in  hematoma, pain, and irritation.  Don't aspirate, which could cause bleeding into the  tissues.  Don't rub the injection site, which could cause  bruising  No evidence to support adding an “air bubble”
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Heparin Side/Adverse effects Bleeding Hair loss (alopecia) Thrombocytopenia
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2012 for the course BIOL 202 taught by Professor Buckley during the Spring '12 term at University of Massachusetts Boston.

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Class 13 Anticoagulants - Drugs That Affect Blood...

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