BSC2011_Unit I Study Guide

BSC2011_Unit I Study Guide - BSC 2011 UNIT I STUDY GUIDE 1....

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BSC 2011 UNIT I STUDY GUIDE 1. (a) Compare and contrast the structure and function of (i) DNA 1. Genetic material that codes for hereditary information. 2. Structure was deduced from knowing its function: Watson and Crirck 3. Double stranded molecule 4. Each strand is a linear sequence of nucleotide. A nucleotide is made up of: a. Phosphate group b. A 5 carbon sugar => deoxyribose c. One of four nitrogenous bases: i. Thymine, cytosine, guanine, adenine 5. Structure a. Nitrogenous bases are i. Single ring pyrimidines (C, T) ii. Or double ring purines (A, G) b. Double helix – two strands connected by H bonds between bases c. Purines h-bond with pyrimidines i. (A = T) (G=C) d. Genetic information is store in the order or sequence of nucleotides (nts) e. (ii) mRNA 1. Messenger RNA 2. Transcription is the transfer of information from DNA to mRNA. The synthesis of mRNA using DNA (a gene) as a template 3. Substitute U for T 4. mRNA transcribe off a gene in the nucleus is “Decoded” into a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm 5. structure a. unlike DNA, it is a single stranded molecule b. similar to DNA, RNA is a linear sequence of nucleotides with a sugar phosphate backbone i. purines A, G ii. pyrimidines C and U (Uracil in place of T) c. unlike DNA, the sugar is ribose (iii) protein 1. mRNA codons translated into a protein. 2. Tens of thousands of different proteins (b) For eukaryotes, what is the function of (i) replication, and where does it occur DNA replication in eukaryotes occurs only in the S phase of cell cycle. (ii) transcription, and where does it occur 1
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RNA processing 1. stabilizes the transcript and facilitates the subsequent transport out of the nucleus to the ribosome for translation into a protein. 2. Two parts: capping and tailing a. 5’ cap – 3’ Poly-A-tail RNA splicing 1. Many euk. Genes are divided into introns and exons. 2. Introns are non coding Intervening regions that are spliced out 3. Exons are coding regions and are Expressed (will be translated) (iii) translation, and where does it occur? * process by which mRNA that has been transcribed off a gene in the nucleus is “Decoded” into a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm . * the correct amino acid sequence for a protein is encoded as an mRNA “reading frame” or a specific linear sequence of codons * the process - spliced mRNA binds to a ribosome in the cytoplasm - the correct tRNA molecule binds to mRNA (anticodon-codon binding ) - a 2nd tRNA binds to next mRNA codon & its amino acid binds to the first amino acid - ribosome continues to move along the mRNA transcript, tRNAs bind, and amino acids join to form a polypeptide chain (protein) until the “Stop” codon is reached (c) What is the role of (i) ribosomes each has a 3-nt anticodon that “Recognizes” a complementary codon on an mRNA transcript “Sitting” on a ribosome (ii) tRNA? During translation, small (~80 nt) transfer RNA molecules each have a specific amino
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2012 for the course BSC BSC2011 taught by Professor Spears during the Spring '10 term at FSU.

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BSC2011_Unit I Study Guide - BSC 2011 UNIT I STUDY GUIDE 1....

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