BSC2011_Slide Set 2

BSC2011_Slide Set 2 - PROBLEM: Given the generality of the...

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PROBLEM: Given the generality of the Central Dogma cell give rise to the diversity of cell types in a multicellular organism? Solution: gene regulation (last time) Next: some final loose ends & then: “DEVELOPMENT”
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I. The Genetic Basis of Development A. Cellular processes guiding development 1. cell division 2. cell differentiation 3. morphogenesis B. How cells differentiate 1. genomic equivalence 2. evidence for genomic equivalence a. totipotency and cloning i. in plants ii. in animals b. stem cells i. embryonic ii. adult 3. molecular processes a. determination i. via cytoplasmic determinants (CDs) ii. via induction by cell signaling “loose ends”
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Nuclei containing DNA Sperm cell Egg cell Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embryo’s cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents ? ? ? What processes, besides cell signaling, cell communication, & gene regulation control the steps in development? Fig. 1-10 (Fig. 1.9, 8 th ed.)
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Proper embryonic development requires that the correct _genes_ are expressed at the correct _time_ and in the correct _location_ . Fig. 18.20; 8th: 18.18
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A. Cellular processes guiding embryonic development For a single, fertilized egg cell (= _zygote_ ) to develop into a multicellular embryo (later, adult) requires: zygote multicellular embryo A. _cell division_ (mitosis) C. _morphogenesis_ B. _cell differentiation_ - to increase # of cells - to faithfully ___________ DNA in daughter cells - involves regulating the expression of genes to make tissue-specific proteins - cells become specialized via a sequence of molecular events called __determination__ (e.g., skin cells, muscle cells, nerve cells) - setting up a body plan (e.g., anterior-posterior axis) - relies on cell signaling affecting gene regulation & cell movements
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Fig. 1-10 Nuclei containing DNA Sperm cell Egg cell Fertilized egg with DNA from both parents Embryo’s cells with copies of inherited DNA Offspring with traits inherited from both parents ? cell division -more cell division -cell differentiation - morphogenesis (soon!)
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B. Processes guiding (embryonic) cell differentiation 1. _genomic equivalence_ : all the different cell types in an organism have identical genomes (same DNA)…but they express different genes 2. Evidence for genomic equivalence: a. __totipotency_ : the potential of a cell to differentiate into an entire organism because no genes are irreversibly turned off
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a. i. evidence of totipotency in plants (e.g., carrot root cells) -the new “cloned” carrot plant is _genetically_ _identical_ to its “parent” -parent’s root cells were totipotent - _cloning_ : obtaining an adult _asexually_ from a parental somatic (body) cell (a non-reproductive cell) Fig. 20.17 (8th: 20.16)
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a. ii. Evidence of totipotency in animals
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2012 for the course BSC BSC2011 taught by Professor Spears during the Spring '10 term at FSU.

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BSC2011_Slide Set 2 - PROBLEM: Given the generality of the...

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