Test 1 BIo 2 Unit 1

Test 1 BIo 2 Unit 1 - Test 1: Quiz 1 Review Biology 2...

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Test 1: Quiz 1 Review Biology 2 Spears Spring 2012 I. The Scientific Method: a. Steps: a.i. Observe something a.ii. Ask a question a.iii. Formulate a hypothesis a.iii.1. Hypothesis: a tentative explanation that can be tested and is falsifiable a.iv. Make a prediction a.v. Experiment/test a.vi. Revise hypothesis II. Central Dogma a. DNA RNA PROTEIN a.i. DNA RNA = trans Cription a.ii. RNA PROTEIN = Trans Lation a.iii. How to remember which one comes first? a.iii.1. “C” comes before “L” III. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) a. gene is a discrete unit of hereditary information on part of a chromosome i. The human genome consists of roughly 25,000 genes that primarily instruct a cell to make a variety of proteins b. genome refers to all of an organism’s genetic material in a cell c. Genetic material d. Double stranded e. 3 main parts: a. phosphate group b. 5 carbon sugar b.i. Ribose = RNA b.ii. Deoxyribose = DNA c. nitrogenous base: this is where the genetic information is contained! a.i.1. Thymine - pyrimidine a.i.2. Cytosine - pyrimidine a.i.3. Guanine - purine a.i.4. Adenine – purine a.i.4.a. How to remember? a.i.4.a.i. Pyrimidines contain a “y” in the name and Purines = “Pure GA S”
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IV. DNA Replication a. Occurs inside nucleus ! b. Process is semiconservative: this means that one of each of the parental strands serves as the template for a new daughter strand, thus you have 2 parent strands that each form a new daughter strand, thus 4 strands total at the end. c. Main enzyme: DNA Polymerase d. Read 3’ 5’ e. Synthesized 5’ 3’ e.i. This is important, she has asked a question about this before and you will see it again: here is how I remember: e.ii. You read a 3 year old books until he’s 5 e.ii.1. I know, silly but a good way to remember V. Definitions: a. Chromosomes: structural units composed of chromatin; 1 long double- stranded helical DNA molecule b. Chromatin: DNA + Proteins associated with it c. Histones: proteins responsible for the tight coiling of DNA: c.i. 8 histones + DNA wrapped around them = 1 nucleosome d. 2 orientations of chromosomes: d.i. Euchromatin: think “exposed” d.i.1. This type of DNA is being transcribed and is “loosely” packed DNA + proteins d.i.2. Associated with being acetylated : modification of histone proteins by addition of acetyl group (-COCH3) - this weakens the histone association with DNA, leaving DNA physically accessible for transcription d.ii. Heterochromatin: think “hiding” d.ii.1. This type of DNA is not being transcribed (inactive) and is “tightly” packed and wrapped around the proteins d.ii.2. Associated with being methylated : adding a -CH 3 d.ii.3. Stains dark; example: Barr bodies d.ii.4. Found only in Eukaryotes VI. RNA: a. Single stranded molecule b. Purines: A, G c. Pyrimidines: Cytosine and Uracil d. 3 major types of RNA: d.i. tRNA – transfer RNA: transfers a specific amino acid to a growing
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Test 1 BIo 2 Unit 1 - Test 1: Quiz 1 Review Biology 2...

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