BSC2010_Unit3_StudyGuide

BSC2010_Unit3_StudyGuide - Unit 3 Study Guide (Chapters 8,...

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Unit 3 Study Guide (Chapters 8, 9, 10, Color Information, and 42)
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Chapter 6 (Plant Information) Chapter 6 Plant Information - Chloroplasts: Capture of Light Energy - chloroplasts contain the green pigment chlorophyll, along with enzymes and other molecules that function in the photosynthetic production of sugar - double membrane separated by a narrow intermembrane space - inside the chloroplast is another membranous system in the form of flattened, interconnected sacs called thylakoids - a stack of thylakoids is called a granum - the fluid outside the thylakoids is called the stroma - contains the chloroplast DNA, ribosomes, and enzymes
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Chapter 8 Chapter 8: An Introduction to Metabolism 8.1: An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics - Metabolism : the totality of an organism’s chemical reactions - it is an emergent property of life that arises from orderly interactions between molecules - A metabolic pathway begins with a specific molecule, which is then altered in a series of defined steps, resulting in a certain product - each step of the pathway is catalyzed by a specific enzyme - Metabolism manages the material and energy resources of the cell - Catabolic pathways : release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds - ex. cellular respiration - Anabolic pathways: consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones - sometimes called biosynthetic pathways - ex. synthesis of amino acids from simple molecules - ex. synthesis of proteins from amino acids - Bioenergetics: the study of how energy flows through living organisms - Energy : the capacity to cause change - energy exists in various forms: 1) Kinetic energy : the relative motion of objects 2) Thermal energy (heat): kinetic energy associated with the random movement of atoms or molecules 3) Potential energy: energy that matter possessed because of its location or structure 4) Chemical energy: the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction - light is also a type of energy that can be harnessed to perform work - Thermodynamics : The study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter - An isolated system is unable to exchange either energy or matter with its surrounding - In an open system, energy and matter can be transferred between the system and its surroundings - organisms are open systems - There are two laws of thermodynamics 1) The First Law of Thermodynamics - Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it can not be created or destroyed - known as the principle of conservation of energy 2) The Second Law of Thermodynamics - Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe - Entropy is a measure of disorder or randomness - the more random, the greater the entropy
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- the concept of entropy helps us understand why certain processes occur without any input of energy - a spontaneous process is one that can occur without an input of energy - the process is energetically favorable - a process that can not occur on its own is called nonspontaneous
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BSC2010_Unit3_StudyGuide - Unit 3 Study Guide (Chapters 8,...

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