Topic+07.1+Human+Memory+Retention+and+Retrieval+from+LTM+2011+for+sakai

Topic+07.1+Human+Memory+Retention+and+Retrieval+from+LTM+2011+for+sakai

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Reminders about encoding and storage Assume associative structure to memory Recall and retrieval occur  in response to cues, and  spreading activation Power law of learning: recognition time, retrieval time  gets faster with practice according to a power function As memory is practiced, it gets stronger according to  a negatively accelerated power function 1
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Reminders about encoding and storage Elaborative processing, generating associations, depth  of processing, self-reference all improve encoding and  storage 2
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Long-term memory 3 Declarative (explicit) Nondeclarative / procedural (implicit) Facts               Events (semantic) (episodic) Medial temporal lobe Priming Skills and habits Associative learning: Nonassociative learning Cortex Striatum (basal  ganglia) Amygdala –  emotional  responses  Cerebellum Reflex pathways +
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The research describing and classifying types of memory is based in the experience of HM At age 27, bilateral removal of hippocampus,  amygdala and much of surrounding medial temporal  cortex Highly specific deficit: immediate memory was intact;  so working memory does not depend on hippocampus Long-term memory for events long before surgery was  intact 4
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T1-weighted series of coronal sections arranged from caudal (A) to rostral (P) to show the extent of the lesion in H.M. Corkin S et al. J. Neurosci. 1997;17:3964-3979 ©1997 by Society for Neuroscience 5
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HM suffered from severe anterograde amnesia after his surgery In ability to consciously remember events experienced  AFTER brain damage Temporally graded retrograde amnesia: the further in  time an event was from the surgery, the more likely it  would be remembered; the closer, the less likely 6
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HM could acquire new perceptual motor skills at a normal rate Retention was comparable to normal controls, though  he had no conscious memory of prior learning Other researchers, with other patients, demonstrated  that priming is intact Amnesic and normal participants shown a list of  words Memory tested by asking for word completions 7
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Memory processing involves Encoding Consolidation Retrieval 8
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Encoding may take place…. …through repetition of an experience Through elaborative, deliberate encoding Left frontal lobe important in encoding of verbal  material; right frontal lobe important in encoding of  visual material Attention, without intent to learn, can also produce  encoding (incidental learning) 9
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Encoding specificity Our ability to remember a stimulus depends on the  similarity between the way it is processed at encoding  and the way it is processed at test Intention to learn influences encoding when it 
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2012 for the course PSYCHOLOGY Cognition taught by Professor Ingate during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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Topic+07.1+Human+Memory+Retention+and+Retrieval+from+LTM+2011+for+sakai

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