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Topic+06+Human+Memory+Encoding+and+Storage+for+sakai-1

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04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 1 How does information get stored in our brains? Controversy and uncertainty continue  to surround  the questions of  Where are memories stored? What is the nature of what is stored?
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04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 2 Historically important views of memory http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/memory.html Aristotle, 350 BCE  notes that the very young and the very old have no or poor  memory, that animals have memory, that people sometimes confuse thought with memory,  determines that the organ of the soul that perceives time is the organ of memory. Experience presses, stamps, a picture in the organ of memory. Ibn Sina 11 th  Century,  Ibn Tufail 12 th  Century  John Locke 17 th  Century
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04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 3 Historically important views of memory Hebb’s cell assemblies: simultaneous activation;  sequential activation (cells that fire together, wire  together) Atkinson & Schiffrin three part model Sensory Store Short-term Memory Long-term Memory Attention Rehearsal
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Recap: Knowledge representations Semantic networks Basic concepts/ object words Gelman & Markman Schemas, typicality, prototypes, instances only  Kail Sentence verification results On-line category learning Models of memory: Hebb, Atkinson & Schiffrin  04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 4
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04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 5 What evidence supported the three store model? Sperling’s  (1960) partial report procedure  demonstrated that all items in a 12-item array were  available Delay of tone Number of letters reported X M R J C N K P V F L B Pre s e nte d fo r 50 m s e c , fo llo we d by  pro m pt (to ne  o r arro w) indic ating  whic h  ro w to  re po rt.  Pro m pt o c c urre d at varying   de lays  (0,.2, .4, .6, .8, 1 s e c o nd)
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04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 6 So… Sperling’s results demonstrated that the sensory store Held a relative large amount of information for a  brief time Decayed rapidly Changing aspects of the method (like brightness of the  post exposure field) changed the persistence of  available information Visual sensory store = iconic memory
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04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 7 What evidence supported the theory of short-term memory? Sensory Store Short-term Memory Attention Rehearsal Memory span is limited New items push old items out Shepard & Teghtsoonian (1961): series of numbers, with selected repetitions at varying lags Long-term Memory
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04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 8 Shepard & Teghtsoonian (1961) Say “old” if you see a number repeated Subjects saw (in succession) 373 842 596 373 628 628 855 760 842
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04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 9
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