Topic+06+Human+Memory+Encoding+and+Storage+for+sakai-1

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Unformatted text preview: 04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 1 How does information get stored in our brains? • Controversy and uncertainty continue to surround the questions of – Where are memories stored? – What is the nature of what is stored? 04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 2 Historically important views of memory • http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/memory.html – Aristotle, 350 BCE notes that the very young and the very old have no or poor memory, that animals have memory, that people sometimes confuse thought with memory, determines that the organ of the soul that perceives time is the organ of memory. – Experience presses, stamps, a picture in the organ of memory. • Ibn Sina 11 th Century, • Ibn Tufail 12 th Century • John Locke 17 th Century 04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 3 Historically important views of memory • Hebb’s cell assemblies: simultaneous activation; sequential activation (cells that fire together, wire together) • Atkinson & Schiffrin three part model Sensory Store Short-term Memory Long-term Memory Attention Rehearsal Recap: Knowledge representations • Semantic networks • Basic concepts/ object words – Gelman & Markman Schemas, typicality, prototypes, instances only Kail Sentence verification results On-line category learning Models of memory: Hebb, Atkinson & Schiffrin 04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 4 04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 5 What evidence supported the three store model? • Sperling’s (1960) partial report procedure demonstrated that all items in a 12-item array were available Delay of tone Number of letters reported X M R J C N K P V F L B Pre s e nte d fo r 50 m s e c , fo llo we d b y pro m pt (to ne o r a rro w) indic a ting whic h ro w to re po rt. Pro m pt o c c urre d a t va rying de la ys (0,.2, .4, .6, .8, 1 s e c o nd) 04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 6 So… Sperling’s results demonstrated that the sensory store • Held a relative large amount of information for a brief time • Decayed rapidly • Changing aspects of the method (like brightness of the post exposure field) changed the persistence of available information • Visual sensory store = iconic memory 04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 7 What evidence supported the theory of short-term memory? Sensory Store Short-term Memory Attention Rehearsal Memory span is limited New items push old items out Shepard & Teghtsoonian (1961): series of numbers, with selected repetitions at varying lags Long-term Memory 04/02/12 Topic 06 Memory encoding and storage 8 Shepard & Teghtsoonian (1961) • Say “old” if you see a number repeated • Subjects saw (in succession) • 373 842 596 373 628 628 855 760 842 04/02/12...
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2012 for the course PSYCHOLOGY Cognition taught by Professor Ingate during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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